Basic Information
Threat: Loss of connectivity
Threat Code: LOSCON
Threat Map
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Legend

Threat Background

MSP Threat/Stressor Background

Goals and Objectives

Goal: The overarching and interrelated goals for protecting and restoring connectivity amongst core habitat areas within the MSPA and other regional conservation areas are to: (1) Ensure the persistence of species across the preserve system and (2) Maintain ecosystem functions across the landscape.

regional NFO 2017, 2018
MON-EVAL-LINK LOSCON-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Complete linkage evaluations and conduct new evaluations/designs in priority linkages in all MUs by completing GIS modelling and field based assessments.

Action Statement Action status Projects
EVAL-1 Review methods, results, and recommendations from linkage evaluations previously conducted, refine methods as necessary, and complete recommended follow-up surveys. In progress
EVAL-2 Complete GIS office-based assessments and/or modelling and field assessments for remaining priority linkages. In progress
EVAL-3 Prepare or update linkage evaluations and recommendations for each linkage to inform Linkage Implementation Plans and submit to MSP web portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage Evaluations completed by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-2 MGT-EVAL-LINK Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action
LOSCON-3 MGT-PRP-LINKPL Starting in 2018, use results of linkage evaluations and available species modelling to prepare Linkage Implementation Plans that identify and prioritize specific short- and long-term actions to protect, maintain or restore connectivity for target species. Identify the type of monitoring strategy to evaluate linkage function.
LOSCON-4 MGT-IMP-LINKPL Beginning in 2017, implement linkage enhancement actions outlined in completed linkage evaluations and linkage implementation plans
regional NFO 2017, 2018
MGT-EVAL-LINK LOSCON-2

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action

Action Statement Action status Projects
EVAL-1 Prioritize linkages based on regional importance, level of threat, and species and habitats supported. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Priority Linkages Identified by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-1 MON-EVAL-LINK Complete linkage evaluations and conduct new evaluations/designs in priority linkages in all MUs by completing GIS modelling and field based assessments.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020
MGT-PRP-LINKPL LOSCON-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Starting in 2018, use results of linkage evaluations and available species modelling to prepare Linkage Implementation Plans that identify and prioritize specific short- and long-term actions to protect, maintain or restore connectivity for target species. Identify the type of monitoring strategy to evaluate linkage function.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Plans will include spatially explicit linkage designs and prioritized short- and long-term implementation actions to complete linkages (land acquisitions, wildlife crossing infrastructure, habitat restoration, culvert maintenance, adding structures for small vertebrates). waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Identify long-term monitoring strategy for each linkage (spatial assessment, Inspect and Manage, Quantitative monitoring). waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Linkage plans may consolidate linkages when several are in close proximity. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Submit data and reports to MSP web portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage Implementation Plans completed for Priority Linkages by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-1 MON-EVAL-LINK Complete linkage evaluations and conduct new evaluations/designs in priority linkages in all MUs by completing GIS modelling and field based assessments.
LOSCON-2 MGT-EVAL-LINK Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action
LOSCON-8 MGT-PRP-SR67PL Work with Caltrans to use results of monitoring studies on SR 67 to identify design specifications and precise locations for wildlife underpasses (and necessary directional fencing) of adequate size, design and orientation for deer, mountain lion and small animals along high priority areas of SR 67. As part of this effort, identify land protection needs to further protect connectivity across SR 67.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-LINKPL LOSCON-4

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2017, implement linkage enhancement actions outlined in completed linkage evaluations and linkage implementation plans

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 As funding becomes available, implement actions based on monitoring studies and Linkage Implementation Plans to improve connectivity for target species, including maintaining culverts, installing directional wildlife fencing, restoration, and land acquisition. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage improvement recommendations implemented for priority linkages by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-1 MON-EVAL-LINK Complete linkage evaluations and conduct new evaluations/designs in priority linkages in all MUs by completing GIS modelling and field based assessments.
LOSCON-3 MGT-PRP-LINKPL Starting in 2018, use results of linkage evaluations and available species modelling to prepare Linkage Implementation Plans that identify and prioritize specific short- and long-term actions to protect, maintain or restore connectivity for target species. Identify the type of monitoring strategy to evaluate linkage function.
LOSCON-5 MON-IMP-LINKPL Monitor effectiveness of enhancement actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species at priority linkages.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-LINKPL LOSCON-5

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Monitor effectiveness of enhancement actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species at priority linkages.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage enhancement monitoring reports submitted 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-1 MON-EVAL-LINK Complete linkage evaluations and conduct new evaluations/designs in priority linkages in all MUs by completing GIS modelling and field based assessments.
LOSCON-2 MGT-EVAL-LINK Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action
LOSCON-3 MGT-PRP-LINKPL Starting in 2018, use results of linkage evaluations and available species modelling to prepare Linkage Implementation Plans that identify and prioritize specific short- and long-term actions to protect, maintain or restore connectivity for target species. Identify the type of monitoring strategy to evaluate linkage function.
LOSCON-4 MGT-IMP-LINKPL Beginning in 2017, implement linkage enhancement actions outlined in completed linkage evaluations and linkage implementation plans
LOSCON-12 MON-PRP-MONPL Develop Quantitative linkage monitoring approach using best available science to document wildlife use, and to identify threats and management actions to enhance connectivity for priority linkages and prepare a monitoring plan.
LOSCON-14 MON-PRP-MONPL Work with land managers and Caltrans to develop and qualitative "Inspect and Manage" monitoring methods for priority wildlife undercrossings and choke points.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
MGT-IMP-SR94PL LOSCON-6

Management units: 3, 11

Beginning in 2017, begin implementation of high priority pre-construction connectivity monitoring and management actions identified in the SR 94 Wildlife Infrastructure Plan (CBI 2015) and use this information in discussions with Caltrans on the design and location of wildlife infrastructure improvements.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Distinguish range of actions identified in SR 94 Wildlife Infrastructure Improvement Plan that can be implemented in advance of SR 94 improvements, such as wildlife fencing, culvert maintenance, or habitat restoration. available for implementation
IMP-2 Work with Caltrans to discuss and evaluate locations and designs for wildlife crossing structures to inform road improvement design studies and plans as they are initiated. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Wildlife connectivity enhancements (fencing, culvert maintenance, restoration) initiated along SR 94 by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-7 MON-IMP-SR94PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-94.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-SR94PL LOSCON-7

Management units: 3, 11

Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-94.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 .Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage enhancement monitoring reports submitted 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-6 MGT-IMP-SR94PL Beginning in 2017, begin implementation of high priority pre-construction connectivity monitoring and management actions identified in the SR 94 Wildlife Infrastructure Plan (CBI 2015) and use this information in discussions with Caltrans on the design and location of wildlife infrastructure improvements.
LOSCON-12 MON-PRP-MONPL Develop Quantitative linkage monitoring approach using best available science to document wildlife use, and to identify threats and management actions to enhance connectivity for priority linkages and prepare a monitoring plan.
LOSCON-14 MON-PRP-MONPL Work with land managers and Caltrans to develop and qualitative "Inspect and Manage" monitoring methods for priority wildlife undercrossings and choke points.
local NFO 2017, 2018
MGT-PRP-SR67PL LOSCON-8

Management units: 4, 5

Work with Caltrans to use results of monitoring studies on SR 67 to identify design specifications and precise locations for wildlife underpasses (and necessary directional fencing) of adequate size, design and orientation for deer, mountain lion and small animals along high priority areas of SR 67. As part of this effort, identify land protection needs to further protect connectivity across SR 67.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Use connectivity monitoring data and modelling to complete SR 67 Wildlife Infrastructure Improvement Plan, which will include specific siting recommendations for the location of wildlife crossing structures, along with identification of structure type and design criteria. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Identify several options for locations and structure type for each crossing to allow transportation engineers flexibility. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Prioritize lands for potential acquisition from willing sellers that retain connectivity across SR-67 and in the surrounding area. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Wildlife Infrastructure Improvement Plan completed for SR 67 by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-2 MGT-EVAL-LINK Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-SR67PL LOSCON-9

Management units: 4, 5

Implement high priority pre-construction connectivity monitoring and management actions in SR67 Wildlife Infrastructure Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Distinguish range of actions identified in SR 67 Wildlife Infrastructure Improvement Plan that can be implemented in advance of SR 67 widening improvements, such as wildlife fencing, culvert maintenance, habitat restoration, or land acquisition. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project meta data and management actions and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Wildlife connectivity enhancements (fencing, culvert maintenance, restoration, land acquisition) initiated along SR 67 by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-8 MGT-PRP-SR67PL Work with Caltrans to use results of monitoring studies on SR 67 to identify design specifications and precise locations for wildlife underpasses (and necessary directional fencing) of adequate size, design and orientation for deer, mountain lion and small animals along high priority areas of SR 67. As part of this effort, identify land protection needs to further protect connectivity across SR 67.
LOSCON-10 MON-IMP-SR67PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-67.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-SR67PL LOSCON-10

Management units: 4, 5

Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-67.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage enhancement monitoring reports submitted to MSP web portal 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-8 MGT-PRP-SR67PL Work with Caltrans to use results of monitoring studies on SR 67 to identify design specifications and precise locations for wildlife underpasses (and necessary directional fencing) of adequate size, design and orientation for deer, mountain lion and small animals along high priority areas of SR 67. As part of this effort, identify land protection needs to further protect connectivity across SR 67.
LOSCON-9 MGT-IMP-SR67PL Implement high priority pre-construction connectivity monitoring and management actions in SR67 Wildlife Infrastructure Plan.
LOSCON-12 MON-PRP-MONPL Develop Quantitative linkage monitoring approach using best available science to document wildlife use, and to identify threats and management actions to enhance connectivity for priority linkages and prepare a monitoring plan.
LOSCON-14 MON-PRP-MONPL Work with land managers and Caltrans to develop and qualitative "Inspect and Manage" monitoring methods for priority wildlife undercrossings and choke points.
regional and/or local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-DEV-BMP LOSCON-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

Beginning in 2019, conduct follow up monitoring to re-assess the effectiveness of added structure on the use of underpasses by small vertebrate species (USGS 2014). Based on results of the study, develop

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Perform an assessment of the current condition of small mammal structure placed at the 4 undercrossings in 2012, and make repairs as needed. Available for implementation
DEV-2 Conduct camera trap studies in the same locations at each undercrossing for a minimum of six months. Available for implementation
DEV-3 Prepare report summarizing results and providing recommendations on best practices for enhancing small mammal use of undercrossings. Available for implementation
DEV-4 Submit project meta data, monitoring datasets and report to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Best practices for improving small mammal use of undercrossings completed by 2019 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018
MON-PRP-MONPL LOSCON-12

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Develop Quantitative linkage monitoring approach using best available science to document wildlife use, and to identify threats and management actions to enhance connectivity for priority linkages and prepare a monitoring plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Utilize data from USGS, CBI, SDSU, UCD-WHC and SDTT studies to compare detection of species and develop a long-term quantitative monitoring strategy to document wildlife use of priority linkages and chokepoints. Available for implementation
PRP-2 Integrate monitoring efforts and data from other regional monitoring efforts where there is overlap, as appropriate (SDTT, Feral Pig monitoring program, SR 67 Study, other species specific connectivity monitoring). Available for implementation
PRP-3 Submit meta data, data and monitoring plan to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Linkage Monitoring Plan in place by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-2 MGT-EVAL-LINK Based on linkage evaluations, prioritize linkages for implementation action
LOSCON-5 MON-IMP-LINKPL Monitor effectiveness of enhancement actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species at priority linkages.
LOSCON-7 MON-IMP-SR94PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-94.
LOSCON-10 MON-IMP-SR67PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-67.
LOSCON-13 MON-IMP-MONPL Implement quantitative linkage monitoring using best practices for priority linkages
regional and/or local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-MONPL LOSCON-13

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Implement quantitative linkage monitoring using best practices for priority linkages

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, data, and monitoring report to MSP web portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring reports submitted annually 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-12 MON-PRP-MONPL Develop Quantitative linkage monitoring approach using best available science to document wildlife use, and to identify threats and management actions to enhance connectivity for priority linkages and prepare a monitoring plan.
regional NFO 2017, 2018
MON-PRP-MONPL LOSCON-14

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10

Work with land managers and Caltrans to develop and qualitative "Inspect and Manage" monitoring methods for priority wildlife undercrossings and choke points.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 \Work with land managers and Caltrans to identify goals and review previous undercrossing evaluation strategies. Available for implementation
PRP-2 Identify additional parameters to be incorporated into regular assessments, test methods in the field, and revise methods as necessary. Available for implementation
PRP-3 Submit project metadata and monitoring plan to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Qualitative "Inspect and Manage" Linkage Monitoring designed and under implementation by landowners and Caltrans, where feasible, in 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-7 MON-IMP-SR94PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-94.
LOSCON-10 MON-IMP-SR67PL Monitor effectiveness of actions implemented to improve connectivity for target species across SR-67.
LOSCON-15 MON-IMP-IMG Implement "Inspect and Manage" monitoring for priority undercrossings and choke points.
regional NFO 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-IMG LOSCON-15

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10

Implement "Inspect and Manage" monitoring for priority undercrossings and choke points.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit meta data, monitoring data, and management recommendations to MSP web portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Inspect and Manage reports submitted annually for priority undercrossings and choke points 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
LOSCON-14 MON-PRP-MONPL Work with land managers and Caltrans to develop and qualitative "Inspect and Manage" monitoring methods for priority wildlife undercrossings and choke points.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-EVAL-LINK LOSCON-16

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Starting in 2017, conduct bi-annual regional spatial assessment to identify how changes in land use have altered permeability of Cores and Linkages using available GIS land cover data. Use results to update connectivity objectives and priorities

Action Statement Action status Projects
EVAL-1 Conduct semi-annual spatial assessments using available GIS, aerial imagery, satellite imagery, habitat suitability/climate/land facet modelling, land use and vegetation data to document how urbanization, infrastructure, and agricultural expansion are altering habitat intactness and connectivity across the MSPA, particularly in important connectivity areas. Available for implementation Dam's test project
EVAL-2 Use results of regional assessments to re-evaluate connectivity objectives as they relate to habitat restoration, land acquisition, and road infrastructure needs. Available for implementation Dam's test project
EVAL-3 Submit project metadata, GIS datasets and report to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Regional spatial assessment of landscape permeability of cores and linkages completed in 2017 and again in 2019 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
regional NFO 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-RSUP-LINK LOSCON-17

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

Continue participation in regional efforts (Tri-County Habitat Connectivity Coalition) to prioritize habitat linkages and secure policy and funding in support of habitat connectivity improvements in the 3 county area.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RSUP-1 Participate in twice yearly meetings to ensure that MSP linkages are identified as Regional Linkage Priorities. In progress
RSUP-2 Participate in regional efforts to seek state and federal policy and funding for habitat connectivity. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Tri County Connectivity Group successful in seeking regional cooperation and funding for connectivity by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-RSUP-WRWG LOSCON-18

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Develop a Wildlife and Roads Working Group to initiate regular communication on wildlife connectivity issues and to identify status of potential road improvement plans for priority highways and roads that pose a threat to connectivity. Identify opportunities for integrating wildlife movement studies into road planning to inform the design and placement of wildlife crossing infrastructure.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RSUP-1 Develop and maintain a list of potential road improvement projects within the MSPA and identify and prioritize those that the group should focus on to maintain or enhance connectivity. Available for implementation
RSUP-2 Submit meeting minutes and list of priority road improvement projects to MSP web portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Wildlife and Roads Working Group first meeting held in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON

Species objectives associated with this threat

regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-FMGT ACAILI-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

Starting in 2017, reduce the potential impact of fire for at risk large populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) by reducing fuel loads of invasive annuals

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Manage thatch and invasive annuals every 3-5 years to reduce fire threat for populations of San Diego thornmint most at risk of fire (populations with ignition probability or fire frequency > 3 or that have burned since 2003) available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and report with management actions to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Fuel Loads and Invasive Grasses Reduced for at Risk Populations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
Regional NFO 2017 SO
MGT-DEV-BMP ACAILI-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Refine BMPs prepared by CBI in the San Diego Thornmint Adaptive Management Framework (2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal and South County Grasslands projects) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer) In progress
DEV-2 Submit project metadata, management datasets and BMP report to MSP web portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
BMPs for San Diego Thornmint Prepared by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-3 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
regional NFO 2017 SO
MON-RES-GEN ACAILI-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved lands in the MSPA. in progress
RES-2 Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for San Diego thornmint. in progress
RES-3 Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses. in progress
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2017, Completed Genetic Study for San Diego Thornmint 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL ACAILI-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Diego thornmint section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to San Diego thornmint occurrences. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for San Diego thornmint that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. waiting for precedent action
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019 Completed Section for San Diego Thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-1 MGT-IMP-FMGT Starting in 2017, reduce the potential impact of fire for at risk large populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) by reducing fuel loads of invasive annuals
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-3 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACAILI-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL ACAILI-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented for San Diego Thornmint from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL ACAILI-8

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL ACAILI-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL ACAILI-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for San Diego thornmint to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =2 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for San Diego thornmint from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional NFO 2017 SO
MON-RES-SPEC ACAILI-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for San Diego thornmint and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Test soils at potential expansion sites and compare to occupied reference sites to determine site suitability based on soils. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-2 Prepare habitat suitability models under current environmental conditions and for different scenarios of climate change to delineate potential future habitat. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-3 Collect covariate data on vegetation composition and cover (alliance and association-level mapping), soils, invasive plants and other threats for selected populations. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-4 Prioritize locations for conservation, management, and future surveys based on predicted distributions and environmental correlates. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and report to MSP web portal. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Refined Models and Prioritized Future Survey Locations for San Diego Thornmint by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Regional NFO 2017 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL ACMPRO-4

Management units: 1, 7

In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. Available for implementation
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. Available for implementation
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. Available for implementation
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). Available for implementation
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. Available for implementation
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2018, Completed Nuttall's Acmispon Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACMPRO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2012, inspect extant Nuttall's acmispon occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
ACMPRO-3 MGT-IMP-IEX From 2017 through 2019, enhance and expand the 4 Nuttall's acmispon occurrences at Mariner's Point, South Shores, South Carlsbad State Beach and Cardiff State Beaches (see occurrence table) and establish a new occurrence at Stony Point in Mission Bay. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACMPRO-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2018, begin implementing the Nuttall's acmispon section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
ACMPRO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain the 5 large occurrences and to enhance at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL ACMPRO-5

Management units: 1, 7

In 2018, begin implementing the Nuttall's acmispon section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. Available for implementation
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Nuttall's Acmispon from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACMPRO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional NFO 2017 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL ACMPRO-6

Management units: 1, 7

In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain the 5 large occurrences and to enhance at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. available for implementation
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Nuttall's acmispon occurrences. available for implementation
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. available for implementation
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Nuttall's acmispon that prioritizes management actions for the nex 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. available for implementation
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, project datasets, and the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2018, Completed Nuttall's Acmispon Section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACMPRO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2012, inspect extant Nuttall's acmispon occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
ACMPRO-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Nuttall's acmispon occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACMPRO-3 MGT-IMP-IEX From 2017 through 2019, enhance and expand the 4 Nuttall's acmispon occurrences at Mariner's Point, South Shores, South Carlsbad State Beach and Cardiff State Beaches (see occurrence table) and establish a new occurrence at Stony Point in Mission Bay. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACMPRO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
ACMPRO-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2018, begin implementing the Nuttall's acmispon section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
ACMPRO-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACMPRO-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL ACMPRO-7

Management units: 1, 7

In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Nuttall's Acmispon from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACMPRO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain the 5 large occurrences and to enhance at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
ACMPRO-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL ACMPRO-8

Management units: 1, 7

In 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACMPRO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing a section for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain the 5 large occurrences and to enhance at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
ACMPRO-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Nuttall's acmispon in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-IMG AMBPUM-1

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

Beginning in 2017, annually inspect San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
AMBPUM-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IMG AMBPUM-2

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing, signage, and enforcement. available for implementation
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing, signage, and enforcement. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal.
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2020 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL AMBPUM-3

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to San Diego ambrosia occurrences. on hold
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. on hold
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for San Diego ambrosia that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. on hold
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, management datasets and the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to MSP web portal on hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed San Diego Ambrosia Section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-4 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
AMBPUM-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL AMBPUM-4

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Using BMPs, conduct invasive plant control annually until success criteria are met and then as needed thereafter. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, management data and monitoring data to MSP web portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, >1 High priority Management Actions for San Diego Ambrosia initiated from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
AMBPUM-5 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor the effectiveness of highest priority management actions for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL AMBPUM-5

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, monitor the effectiveness of highest priority management actions for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
AMBPUM-4 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL AMBPUM-6

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. On hold
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. On hold
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. On hold
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). On hold
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. On hold
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed San Diego Ambrosia section in the MSP Seed Collection Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect San Diego ambrosia occurrences on Conserved Lands in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
AMBPUM-7 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2021, begin implementing the San Diego Ambrosia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seed at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL AMBPUM-7

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, begin implementing the San Diego Ambrosia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seed at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, >1 San Diego Ambrosia Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking initiated 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AMBPUM-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego ambrosia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat, threats, genetic data, and results of existing restoration efforts. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
AMBPUM-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for San Diego Ambrosia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-RES-GEN ANACAL-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2021, continue genetic studies of the arroyo toad in San Diego Co. (using genetic material collected during past and present regional surveys) to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers; this information will also be used to determine source populations to use in re-establishing arroyo toads in previously occupied areas.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Continue to collect genetic samples during surveys for arroyo toad for use in examining the genetic relationship of arroyo toad in western San Diego County. waiting for precedent action
RES-2 Analyze the genetic samples to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers. waiting for precedent action
RES-3 Prepare management recommendations based upon the genetic analyses that maintain or enhance gene flow and genetic diversity and that identifies source populations. waiting for precedent action
RES-4 Submit project metadata, datasets, and Arroyo Toad Genetics Study report to the MSP Web Portal. Unknown
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic samples collected from studies completed through 2021; Genetic Analysis and Report Completed by 2021. 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
ANACAL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SO
MON-SURV-SPEC ANACAL-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Survey known occupied and potantial habitat on Conserved Lands across the MSPA to determine the distribution and abundance of arroyo toad on Conserved Lands. Available for implementation
SURV-2 Collect data on threats and identify management needs to support self-sustaining occurrences. Available for implementation
SURV-3 Continue to collect genetic samples from all arroyo toads captured. Available for implementation
SURV-4 Submit survey data and management recommendations to MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Comprehensive surveys completed for Arroyo toad by 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL ANACAL-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2017, continue to convene with the working group of land managers, scientists, wildlife agencies, and local biologists knowledgeable in arroyo toad to review existing conditions of known occurrences on Conserved Lands, to prepare a plan for management of arroyo toad which considers each site, and to develop a regional monitoring strategy.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Convene working group meetings to review existing conditions of known occurrences. in progress
PRP-2 Use habitat models developed by USGS and results from survey and genetic analyses to identify suitable areas for long-term management. in progress
PRP-3 Conduct site visits as necessary to identify appropriate management actions. in progress
PRP-4 Develop an arroyo toad management plan. The plan should prioritize management actions for the next five years and detail tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, timelines, and budgets. in progress
PRP-5 Submit management plan to MSP web portal in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Arroyo toad management plan completed by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
ANACAL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, conduct routine management actions for arroyo toad identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from detrimental human use (e.g. ORV, trampling, altered hydrology), removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and/or prey on arroyo toads, primarily young) within the known arroyo toad habitat.
ANACAL-3 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2021, continue genetic studies of the arroyo toad in San Diego Co. (using genetic material collected during past and present regional surveys) to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers; this information will also be used to determine source populations to use in re-establishing arroyo toads in previously occupied areas.
ANACAL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL ANACAL-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, implement high priority actions identified in the Arroyo Toad Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management actions and report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
High priority management actions implemented for Arroyo toad 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
ANACAL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, conduct routine management actions for arroyo toad identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from detrimental human use (e.g. ORV, trampling, altered hydrology), removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and/or prey on arroyo toads, primarily young) within the known arroyo toad habitat.
ANACAL-3 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2021, continue genetic studies of the arroyo toad in San Diego Co. (using genetic material collected during past and present regional surveys) to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers; this information will also be used to determine source populations to use in re-establishing arroyo toads in previously occupied areas.
ANACAL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.
ANACAL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, continue to convene with the working group of land managers, scientists, wildlife agencies, and local biologists knowledgeable in arroyo toad to review existing conditions of known occurrences on Conserved Lands, to prepare a plan for management of arroyo toad which considers each site, and to develop a regional monitoring strategy.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL ANACAL-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for the arroyo toad.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of implementing high priority arroyo toad management actions determined 2021

Regional NFO 2019 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC APHBLI-3

Management units: 1, 7

In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
APHBLI-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect extant aphanisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.
APHBLI-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
APHBLI-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences and/or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat as needed to achieve at least 3 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2021 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL APHBLI-4

Management units: 1, 7

In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the aphanisma section of the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Write a seed collection plan section that includes collecting seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulating seeds across populations, and sampling among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from occurrences with <1,000 plants and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan section should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, Completed Aphanisma Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
APHBLI-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect extant aphanisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.
APHBLI-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
APHBLI-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
APHBLI-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences and/or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat as needed to achieve at least 3 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL APHBLI-5

Management units: 1, 7

In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences and/or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat as needed to achieve at least 3 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the aphanisma section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to aphanisma populations. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. available for implementation
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for aphanisma that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 year and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, project datasets, and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, Completed Aphanisma Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
APHBLI-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect extant aphanisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.
APHBLI-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at aphamisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
APHBLI-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the "IMG" monitoring at aphamisma occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
APHBLI-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
APHBLI-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic aphanisma locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
APHBLI-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for aphanisma in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MON-RES-GEN AQUCHR-2

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Collect blood samples from captured birds to include in a larger study of golden eagle population genetics in the western United States to determine the population genetic structure within the MSPA. Genetic parameters that can be measured include gene flow between territories, relatedness of individuals, effective breeding population size, and overall genetic diversity. Determine whether eagles produced outside the MSPA immigrate into the MSPA to establish breeding territories and evaluate genetic relationships to other eagle populations in the western United States. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-2 Submit project metadata, datasets, and Golden Eagle Genetics Study report to the MSP Web Portal. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
Criteria Deadline year
Golden Eagle Genetic Study with Report Completed by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-1 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.
AQUCHR-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.
AQUCHR-4 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.

regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-RES-GEN ATHCUN-2

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 9

As part of the burrowing owl research study, collect genetic samples to determine origin of owls and genetic population structure compared to other populations in California, Mexico, and the western U.S.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Continue to collect genetic samples during surveys for burrowing owl for use in examining the genetic relationship of burrowing owl in California, Mexico, and the western U.S. waiting for precedent action
RES-2 Analyze the genetic samples to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers. waiting for precedent action
RES-3 Prepare management recommendations based upon the genetic analysis that maintain or enhance gene flow and genetic diversity and that identifies source populations. waiting for precedent action
RES-4 Submit project metadata, datasets, and Burrowing Owl Genetics Study report to the MSP Web Portal. Unknown
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic samples collected from studies completed through 2021; Genetic Analysis and Report Completed by 2021. 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON

Regional NFO 2017 SO
MON-RES-GEN BACVAN-3

Management units: 3, 4, 6

In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Encinitas baccharis occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at Encinitas baccharis occurrences in the MSPA. In progress Wed Demo
RES-2 Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for Encinitas baccharis. In progress
RES-3 Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses. In progress
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2017, Completed Genetic Study with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL BACVAN-4

Management units: 3, 4, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Encinitas baccharis section in the MSP Species Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress Wed Demo
PRP-2 Design the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Encinitas Baccharis Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Encinitas baccharis occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL BACVAN-5

Management units: 1, 7

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Encinitas Baccharis from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL BACVAN-6

Management units: 4, 5, 8

Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Encinitas baccharis occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Encinitas Baccharis that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Encinitas Baccharis Section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BACVAN-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BACVAN-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Encinitas baccharis occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BACVAN-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BACVAN-9 MON-RES-SPEC Determine the population dynamics of Encinitas baccharis in response to natural and altered fire frequencies that may affect successional processes and population dynamics. The study should begin when the next fire burns an Encinitas baccharis occurrence and include subsequently burned occurrences to research post-fire recovery mechanisms (e.g., resprouter vs. obligate seeder) and circumstances in which post-fire management is necessary to facilitate robust post-fire recovery. Use results to identify postfire management actions for Encinitas baccharis to assist in recovery of burned populations.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL BACVAN-7

Management units: 1, 7

Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Encinitas Baccharis from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BACVAN-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL BACVAN-8

Management units: 1, 7

Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

NFO 2017 SS
MON-RES-SPEC BROFIL-3

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Test soils at potential expansion sites and compare to occupied reference sites to determine site suitability based on soils. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-2 Prepare habitat suitability models under current environmental conditions and for different scenarios of climate change to delineate potential future habitat. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-3 Collect covariate data on vegetation composition and cover (alliance and association-level mapping), soils, invasive plants and other threats for selected populations. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-4 Prioritize locations for conservation, management, and future surveys based on predicted distributions and environmental correlates. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and report to MSP web portal. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Refined Models and Prioritized Future Survey Locations for thread-leaved brodiaea by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2019 SS
MON-SURV-SPEC BROFIL-4

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, occurrence status, habitat mapping and assessment, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2020 SS
MGT-PRP-MGTPL BROFIL-5

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Prioritize extant occurrences for management based upon "IMG" monitoring data and baseline survey assessments of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Identify and prioritize sites for re-establishment of historic occurrences or that appear suitable for establishment of new occurrences. Specify the highest priority sites for establishing occurrences on Conserved Lands. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for thread-leaved brodiaea that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BROFIL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at thread-leaved brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROFIL-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.
BROFIL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROFIL-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROFIL-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROFIL-8 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-MGTPL BROFIL-6

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 High priority Management Action Implemented for Thread-leaved Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SS
MON-IMP-MGTPL BROFIL-7

Management units: 6, 7, 8

Monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified in the thread-leaved brodiaea section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2020 SS
MGT-PRP-SBPL BROFIL-8

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Thread-leaved brodiaea MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Design a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, completed section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect conserved populations of thread-leaved brodiaea in (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BROFIL-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for thread-leaved brodiaea and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.
BROFIL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic thread-leaved brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROFIL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, as needed, to achieve at least 4 occurrences with self-sustaining populations on Conserved Lands. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROFIL-9 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2021, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Thread-leaved brodiaea to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences
NFO 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-SBPL BROFIL-9

Management units: 6, 7, 8

In 2021, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Thread-leaved brodiaea to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Seed should be stored for conservation banking and as source of propagules for enhancement and restoration projects at a permanent, established seed bank. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and Thread-leaved brodiaea MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Thread-leaved brodiaea from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BROFIL-8 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing a section for Thread-leaved brodiaea in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seed sources for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MGT-IMP-IEX BROORC-4

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct invasive plant control and distribute seed to establish new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences. in progress
IMP-2 Implement seed augmentation using seed collected and bulked by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research. in progress
IMP-3 Submit project metadata, management datasets and report to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, 2 New Occurrences of Orcutt's Brodiaea Established and Report Submitted 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2020 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL BROORC-5

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Design the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL BROORC-6

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt's brodiaea from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL BROORC-7

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's brodiaea that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Brodiaea Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
BROORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BROORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's brodiaea locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
BROORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2017, establish 2 new Orcutt's brodiaea occurrences at Proctor Valley and Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon. Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
BROORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL BROORC-8

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's brodiaea seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for establishment of new occurrences at Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon and Proctor Valley. In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL BROORC-9

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
BROORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BROORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's brodiaea in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-1

Management units: 2, 3, 4

From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Following best practices in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan, design cactus scrub enhancement and restoration projects to provide high quality nesting and foraging habitat with large patches of cacti >1 m tall in a mosaic of open scrub that provides sufficient food resources for reproduction and survival, especially during drought. As they become available, incoporate the results from the Cactus Wren Demography, Foraging and Arthropod Study to create restoration palettes that favor plant species associated with important arthropod food resources. Design planting layouts to maximize water availability by allocating a portion of the plantings to more mesic sites, such as ravines, at the bottom of slopes, and on northerly and easterly aspects. Control invasive nonnative plants to =20% absolute cover to reduce competition with native plants for water and light. some occurrences are in progress Otay River Valley Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration and Enhancement , Salt Creek Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Project
IMP-2 Implement management actions, as needed, to reduce anthropogenic predation on wrens and their nests in fragmented habitats bordered by development where wrens are vulnerable to predation by cats, Cooper's hawks, corvids and other human-subsidized predators. Actions could include removing selected trees within or bordering cactus scrub that provide hunting, roosting, and nesting perches for hawks and corvids and avoiding cactus scrub restoration in areas where the terrain and location make wrens especially vulnerable to predation. Other measures could involve humanely removing feral cats from Conserved Lands and providing educational material and signage encouraging neighboring homeowners to keep their cats indoors so that wrens are protected and cats are safe from predation by wild animals, such as coyotes. some occurrences are in progress Otay River Valley Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration and Enhancement , Salt Creek Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Project
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =3 High Priority Management Actions Implemented from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-2

Management units: 2, 3, 4

From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Collect vegetation data to document success of cactus scrub restoration projects. This can include monitoring the height, diameter and survival of planted cactus and the composition and percent cover of native and nonnative shrubs, forbs and grasses. Document wren use of restored cactus scrub. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit restoration and enhancement project metadata, management datasets, and reports to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
IMP-3 Conduct a meta-analysis of habitat restoration data and cactus wren population survey data to determine whether short-term success criteria have been achieved for habitat restoration actions and for wren populations in south San Diego County. Based upon these results, prepare recommendations for the 2022-2031 management strategy for coastal cactus wren. These broad recommendations can be used in 2022 to update the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan with the next set of success criteria and specific, prioritized management actions. waiting for precedent action
IMP-4 Submit cactus wren habitat restoration and population meta-analysis datasets, results, and management strategy recommendations for south San Diego County to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Success Criteria 2013-2021: Restore =70 Acres of High Quality Cactus Scrub and Increase the Combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon Genetic Clusters to =75 Territories on C 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-SURV-SPEC CAMBRU-3

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Conduct 2 rounds of protocol surveys each year for coastal cactus wrens in mapped cactus at long term monitoring sites and expand monitoring sites, as needed, to include restoration sites and newly conserved cactus scrub. Use standardized protocols to document the number of wrens observed, age, sex, pairing and nesting status, and color band combinations, and to assess habitat for shrub overgrowth and crowding, invasive plants, unhealthy or dead cactus, and dominant shrub and cactus species. Update cactus mapping at restored and newly conserved sites. in progress
SURV-2 In conjunction with the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, focus on collecting banding status data to better understand cactus wren population dynamics, adult and juvenile survival, and dispersal capabilities in south San Diego County. unknown
SURV-3 Submit project metadata, cactus wren survey and habitat assessment datasets, analyses and survey reports to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Cactus Wren Surveys and Habitat Assessments Completed 2017-2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MON-RES-GEN CAMBRU-5

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Collaborate with the Natural Community Coalition to repeat the 2012 Southern California Coastal Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015) for the Coastal Orange County-Camp Pendleton, San Diego/El Cajon, Otay, and San Pasqual genetic clusters. Evaluate whether the clusters with low effective population sizes and potential inbreeding have changed their levels of genetic diversity in the intervening 6 years with management to increase cactus scrub and improve connectivity, from translocating wrens between genetic clusters, or from population declines during a long and intense drought. in progress
RES-2 Analyze genetic and reproduction data from Orange County and San Diego County studies to determine if reproduction may be adversely affected by inbreeding or low genetic diversity. If lack of genetic diversity and inbreeding show signs of depressing productivity, then evaluate and prioritize specific management recommendations to increase gene flow, such as switching eggs or translocating individuals between genetic clusters over the short term and restoring habitat to expand populations and improve connectivity within and between genetic clusters over the long term. in progress
RES-3 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses, and report with specific management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic Study Completed and Report Submitted by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-NUR CAMBRU-6

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement BMPs when harvesting and growing cactus at a nursery in preparation for transplant into natural lands for cactus restoration projects and to provide an emergency source of cactus following wildfire. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
IMP-2 Grow and supply cactus pads, segments, and entire plants from locally harvested native cactus with a composition of species reflecting what naturally occurs in each geographic area. The North County Cactus Nursery should cactus to projects in MUs 6 and 8 and those areas in MU 4 dominated by prickly pear cactus. The South County Cactus Nursery should supply cactus to MUs 2 and 3 and to those areas in MU 4 dominated by coast cholla. The amount of cactus produced will be determined periodically based upon: management recommendations from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan; from ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley and Lake Hodges; an evaluation of planned and ongoing cactus restoration projects; and an assessment of cactus needed to be kept in reserve for future post-fire rehabilitation efforts. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
IMP-3 Submit project metadata, nursery plans, and reports with information on harvesting, growing and distributing cactus for restoration projects to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
Criteria Deadline year
Cactus Nurseries Established in North and South San Diego County to Provide Sufficient Cactus for Restoration and PostFire Rehabilitation 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IEX CAMBRU-7

Management units: 5, 6

In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Following best practices, design cactus scrub enhancement and restoration projects to provide high quality nesting and foraging habitat with large patches of cacti >1 m tall in a mosaic of open scrub that provides sufficient food resources for reproduction and survival, especially during drought years when arthropod food resources are limiting. As they become available, incoporate the results from the Cactus Wren Demography, Foraging and Arthropod Study to create restoration palettes that favor plant species associated wtih important wren food resources. Design planting layouts to maximize water availability by allocating a portion of the plantings to more mesic sites, such as ravines, at the bottom of slopes, and on northerly and easterly aspects. Control invasive nonnative plants to =20% absolute cover to reduce competition with native plants for water and light. in progress Hodges Reservoir-Bernardo Bay Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Grant Project
IMP-2 Implement management actions, as needed, to reduce anthropogenic predation on wrens and their nests in fragmented habitats bordered by development where wrens are vulnerable to predation by cats, Cooper's hawks, corvids and other human-subsidized predators. Actions could include removing selected trees within or bordering cactus scrub that provide hunting, roosting, and nesting perches for hawks and corvids and avoiding cactus scrub restoration in areas where the terrain and location make wrens especially vulnerable to predation. Other measures could involve humanely removing feral cats from Conserved Lands and providing educational material and signage encouraging neighboring homeowners to keep their cats indoors so that wrens are protected and cats are safe from predation by wild animals, such as coyotes. in progress Hodges Reservoir-Bernardo Bay Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Grant Project
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented from ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley and Lake Hodges 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-8

Management units: 5, 6

From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Collect vegetation data to document success of cactus scrub restoration projects. This can include monitoring the height, diameter and survival of planted cactus and the composition and percent cover of native and nonnative shrubs, forbs and grasses. Document wren use of restored cactus scrub. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit restoration and enhancement project metadata, management datasets, and reports to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-3 Conduct a meta-analysis of habitat restoration data and cactus wren population survey data to determine whether short-term success criteria have been achieved for habitat restoration actions and for wren populations in north San Diego County. Based upon these results, prepare recommendations for a 2022-2031 management strategy for coastal cactus wren. These broad recommendations can be used in 2022 to prepare a North San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan with specific, prioritized management actions. waiting for precedent action
IMP-4 Submit cactus wren habitat restoration and population meta-analysis datasets, results, and management strategy recommendations for north San Diego County to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Success Criteria 2013-2021: Restore =75 Acres of High Quality Cactus Scrub and Increase the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges Genetic Cluster to =90 Territories on Conserve 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-FMGT CAMBRU-10

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Prepare postfire habitat monitoring protocols and sampling design to determine the status of coastal cactus wrens and characterize cactus scrub recovery following wildfire. Use the monitoring results to identify management actions to ensure postfire recovery of high quality cactus scrub at occupied cactus wren sites and at unoccupied cactus scrub sites important for wren population expansion and connectivity within and between genetic clusters. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, cactus wren postfire survey and habitat monitoring data, annual reports with management recommendations, and a final report documenting project methods and results to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Monitoring of Cactus Wrens and Habitats with Annual Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.

Regional NFO 2017 SL
MON-RES-GEN CHLMAR-3

Management units: 1

In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing to enhance existing occurrences and establish new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences in the MSPA. In progress
RES-2 Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses. In progress
RES-3 Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for salt marsh bird's-beak. In progress
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic Study with Management Recommendations Completed in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
Regional NFO 2018 SL
MON-DEV-MODL CHLMAR-4

Management units: 1

in 2018, develop models predicting habitat suitability under future climate scenarios and combine the habitat models with projected increases in sea level and urban development to evaluate and prioritize sites for establishing new occurrences of salt marsh bird's-beak. Formulate management recommendations to reduce risk and increase persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak populations under changing conditions of climate and land use.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Work with land managers, species experts, scientists and other stakeholders to identify opportunities to manage for long-term persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak under changing climate and land use conditions. On hold
DEV-2 Submit project metadata, models, data layers and report with management recommendation to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Modeling and Management Recommendations Completed by 2019 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Climate changeCLICHN
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
CHLMAR-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing to enhance existing occurrences and establish new occurrences.
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
Regional NFO 2018 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL CHLMAR-5

Management units: 1

Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-2 Prepare the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Salt Marsh Bird's-beak Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
CHLMAR-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing to enhance existing occurrences and establish new occurrences.
CHLMAR-4 MON-DEV-MODL in 2018, develop models predicting habitat suitability under future climate scenarios and combine the habitat models with projected increases in sea level and urban development to evaluate and prioritize sites for establishing new occurrences of salt marsh bird's-beak. Formulate management recommendations to reduce risk and increase persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak populations under changing conditions of climate and land use.
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect salt marsh bird's-beak seed for conservation banking. In 2019, begin implementing high priority actions for salt marsh bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL CHLMAR-6

Management units: 1

From 2017-2019, collect salt marsh bird's-beak seed for conservation banking. In 2019, begin implementing high priority actions for salt marsh bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =2 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for Salt Marsh Bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
CHLMAR-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for salt marsh bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2018, 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL CHLMAR-7

Management units: 1

In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for salt marsh bird's-beak that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Salt Marsh Bird's-beak Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
CHLMAR-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CHLMAR-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CHLMAR-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for salt marsh bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing to enhance existing occurrences and establish new occurrences.
CHLMAR-4 MON-DEV-MODL in 2018, develop models predicting habitat suitability under future climate scenarios and combine the habitat models with projected increases in sea level and urban development to evaluate and prioritize sites for establishing new occurrences of salt marsh bird's-beak. Formulate management recommendations to reduce risk and increase persistence of salt marsh bird's-beak populations under changing conditions of climate and land use.
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect salt marsh bird's-beak seed for conservation banking. In 2019, begin implementing high priority actions for salt marsh bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CHLMAR-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for salt marsh bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
CHLMAR-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSPRare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CHLMAR-8

Management units: 1

In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for salt marsh bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented for Salt Marsh Bird's-beak from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL Prepare a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetics study and from 2017-2019 seed collection and banking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research to guide collection and storing of seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHLMAR-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect salt marsh bird's-beak seed for conservation banking. In 2019, begin implementing high priority actions for salt marsh bird's-beak from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
CHLMAR-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSPRare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL CHLMAR-9

Management units: 1

In 2019, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSPRare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CHLMAR-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a salt marsh bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and enhance large occurrences, enhance and expand at least 3 small occurrences, and establish at least 1 new occurrence on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Management actions should be based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and include recommendations for creating salt marsh habitat and establishing new occurrences in response to a projected rise in sea level and for re-establishing historic occurrences as necessary for gene flow and long term persistence. Include recommendations from the 2017 genetics study, MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan, relevant best management practices (BMPs), and for monitoring the effectiveness of management actions.
CHLMAR-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for salt marsh bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-IMG CHOORC-1

Management units: 6, 7

Beginning in 2017, conduct annual surveys of all Orcutt's spineflower.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's spineflower occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CHOORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017, continue BMPs initiated in 2015 to establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHOORC-6 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IMG CHOORC-2

Management units: 6, 7

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's spineflower occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. in progress Otay Mesa Rare Plants
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. in progress Otay Mesa Rare Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct annual surveys of all Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2017 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC CHOORC-3

Management units: 6, 7

In 2017, continue efforts begun in 2015 to survey historic Orcutt's spineflower locations to: determine current occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. In progress
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Baseline Surveys and Report Completed by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
regional NFO 2017 SL
MGT-IMP-IEX CHOORC-4

Management units: 6, 7

In 2017, continue BMPs initiated in 2015 to establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt in progress
IMP-2 Use BMPs for site preparation (Bauder 2010a,b). Sites with ice plant or Acacia shrubs should be cleared of these invasive plants and duff and then watched for at least 2 years with suitable growing conditions to determine if there are viable spineflower in progress
IMP-3 Maintain newly established occurrences so that there is <20% invasive non-native absolute cover, minimal encroachment of native plants (based upon standards used at the Point Loma Naval Base), and no ground disturbance from erosion or trampling. in progress
IMP-4 Use the seed collection and bulking plan to determine seed sources and timing and amount of seeding. in progress
IMP-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring and management data to MSP web portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
4 New Occurrences of Orcutt's Spineflower Established by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017, continue efforts begun in 2015 to survey historic Orcutt's spineflower locations to: determine current occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL CHOORC-5

Management units: 6, 7

In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's spineflower section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. On hold
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. On hold
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. On hold
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). On hold
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. On hold
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed Section for Orcutt's Spineflower in MSP Seed Collection Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct annual surveys of all Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017, continue BMPs initiated in 2015 to establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL CHOORC-6

Management units: 6, 7

In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =1 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for Orcutt's Spineflower from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional NFO 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL CHOORC-7

Management units: 6, 7

In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's spineflower occurrences. on hold
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. on hold
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's spineflower that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. on hold
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed Section for Orcutt's Spineflower in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct annual surveys of all Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's spineflower occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CHOORC-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017, continue efforts begun in 2015 to survey historic Orcutt's spineflower locations to: determine current occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
CHOORC-4 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017, continue BMPs initiated in 2015 to establish 4 new occurrences of Orcutt's spineflower.
CHOORC-5 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
CHOORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2020, begin implementation of the highest priority management actions for Orcutt's spineflower identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
CHOORC-9 MON-IMP-MGTPL Monitor the effectiveness of highest priority management actions implemented for Orcutt's spineflower.
Regional NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CHOORC-8

Management units: 6, 7

Beginning in 2020, begin implementation of the highest priority management actions for Orcutt's spineflower identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =1 High Priority Management Action Initiated for Orcutt's spineflower from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL CHOORC-9

Management units: 6, 7

Monitor the effectiveness of highest priority management actions implemented for Orcutt's spineflower.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CHOORC-7 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a section for Orcutt's spineflower in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to maintain large occurrences (>1,000 plants) and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
CHOORC-8 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2020, begin implementation of the highest priority management actions for Orcutt's spineflower identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Regional NFO 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL CLICHA-3

Management units: 3, 4

In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. On hold
PRP-2 Prepare the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. On hold
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. On hold
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). On hold
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. On hold
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed San Miguel Savory Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL CLICHA-4

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2024, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for San Miguel Savory from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2019, 2020 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL CLICHA-5

Management units: 3, 4

In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to San Miguel savory occurrences. on hold
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. on hold
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for San Miguel savory that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. on hold
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed San Miguel Savory Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
CLICHA-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CLICHA-6

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2024, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for San Miguel Savory Section from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
CLICHA-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL CLICHA-7

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional NFO 2017 SS
MGT-DEV-BMP DEICON-3

Management units: 3

In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Conduct experiments using mowing, prescribed burns herbicide and potentially grazing to control invasive non-native grasses and forbs at a landscape-scale and to compare drill seeding versus hand broadcast seeding in order to determine economical and effect. in progress
DEV-2 Based upon experiment results, develop explicit BMPs for the restoration of Otay tarplant. Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and BMP report to MSP web portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
BMPs Developed for Restoration of Otay tarplant by 2017 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2017 SS
MON-RES-GEN DEICON-4

Management units: 3

In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at conserved Otay tarplant occurrences (Table 2-3.3). in progress
RES-2 Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for Otay tarplant in progress
RES-3 Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses. waiting for precedent action
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2018, Completed Genetic Study for Otay Tarplant with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-IEX DEICON-5

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2018, and continuing for 3 years at the 3 Otay tarplant restoration sites initiated under the South County Grasslands project, use BMPs to maintain the maximum occupied extent and a surrounding buffer area equal to 25% of this extent by preventing ground disturbance and reducing nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% total cover and thatch to <5 cm tall.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct invasive plant control annually using BMPs until success criteria are met and then as needed thereafter. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, 3 Otay Tarplant Occurrences Enhanced/Established and Reports Submitted 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2018 SS
MGT-PRP-MGTPL DEICON-6

Management units: 3

In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Otay tarplant in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Otay tarplant occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Otay tarplant that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, project datasets, and the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Otay Tarplant Section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-5 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2018, and continuing for 3 years at the 3 Otay tarplant restoration sites initiated under the South County Grasslands project, use BMPs to maintain the maximum occupied extent and a surrounding buffer area equal to 25% of this extent by preventing ground disturbance and reducing nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% total cover and thatch to <5 cm tall.
DEICON-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
DEICON-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
DEICON-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-MGTPL DEICON-7

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata and management datasets, report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Otay tarplant from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MON-IMP-MGTPL DEICON-8

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2018 SS
MGT-PRP-SBPL DEICON-9

Management units: 3

In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Otay Tarplant Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-10 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Otay tarplant to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-SBPL DEICON-10

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Otay tarplant to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, > 1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Otay Tarplant from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional NFO 2017 SS
MON-RES-SPEC DEICON-11

Management units: 3

In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for Otay tarplant and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Test soils at potential expansion sites and compare to occupied reference sites to determine site suitability based on soils. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-2 Prepare habitat suitability models under current environmental conditions and for different scenarios of climate change to delineate potential future habitat. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-3 Collect covariate data on vegetation composition and cover (alliance and association-level mapping), soils, invasive plants and other threats for selected populations. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-4 Prioritize locations for conservation, management, and future surveys based on predicted distributions and environmental correlates. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring data, habitat models, analyses, and report to MSP web portal. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Refined Models and Prioritized Future Survey Locations for Otay Tarplant by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-10 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Otay tarplant to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Regional NFO 2017 SL
MON-RES-GEN DICORC-3

Management units: 1, 3

In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Use BMPs to collect plant material for genetic samples at Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences in the MSPA. In progress Population Genetic Analysis of 6 Rare Plant Species in San Diego County
RES-2 Hold a workshop of scientists, rare plant experts, and land managers to develop management recommendations based upon the results of genetic analyses. In progress
RES-3 Evaluate the overall long-term genetic trajectory for Orcutt's bird's-beak. In progress
RES-4 Submit project metadata, genetic datasets and analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic Study with Management Recommendations Completed in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2019 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC DICORC-4

Management units: 1, 3

In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's bird's-beak locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments, management recommendations, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2020 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL DICORC-6

Management units: 1, 3

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-2 Prepare the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Bird's-beak Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017 to 2021, inspect Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DICORC-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DICORC-5 MGT-IMP-IEX From 2017 to 2019, enhance Orcutt's bird's-beak at the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence’s occupied extent and adjacent suitable habitat.
DICORC-7 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional and/or Local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL DICORC-7

Management units: 1, 3

From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt'sBird's-beak from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-5 MGT-IMP-IEX From 2017 to 2019, enhance Orcutt's bird's-beak at the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence’s occupied extent and adjacent suitable habitat.
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
DICORC-9 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2020 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL DICORC-8

Management units: 1, 3

In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences. on hold
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. on hold
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's bird's-beak that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. on hold
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Completed Orcutt's Bird's-beak Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017 to 2021, inspect Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DICORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DICORC-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, complete the study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Orcutt's bird's-beak occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DICORC-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Orcutt's bird's-beak locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
DICORC-5 MGT-IMP-IEX From 2017 to 2019, enhance Orcutt's bird's-beak at the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). Invasive plant control should be conducted using BMPs so that invasive plants are reduced to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence’s occupied extent and adjacent suitable habitat.
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-7 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
DICORC-9 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
DICORC-10 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL DICORC-9

Management units: 1, 7

In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2025, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Bird's-beak from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-7 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
DICORC-10 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional and/or local NFO 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL DICORC-10

Management units: 1, 7

In 2021, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DICORC-6 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations from 2017-2019 seed collection and bulking efforts conducted by San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research and from the 2016-2017 genetic study to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DICORC-7 MGT-IMP-SBPL From 2017-2019, collect Orcutt's bird's-beak seed for conservation banking and bulk seed for enhancing and expanding the Cal Terraces/Dennery Canyon occurrence (see occurrence table). In 2021, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
DICORC-8 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2020, begin preparing an Orcutt's bird's-beak section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain large occurrences and expand at least 3 small occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences if determined to be necessary for gene flow and for long term persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
DICORC-9 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2021, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's bird's-beak in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-IMG DUDBLO-1

Management units: 1, 6

From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Annual Surveys Completed with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDBLO-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Blochman's dudleya occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DUDBLO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plant to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DUDBLO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to at least 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IMG DUDBLO-2

Management units: 1, 6

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Blochman's dudleya occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities as needed, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species to =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plant to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DUDBLO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to at least 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2019 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC DUDBLO-3

Management units: 1, 2, 6, 7

In 2019, survey historic Blochman's dudleya locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 At each extant occurrence, map the extent of the occurrence, collect data on abundance, map adjacent suitable habitat for potential occurrence expansion, collect covariate data on threats including estimates of cover of invasive non-native plants and trampling. On hold
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, habitat mapping, and a report with site prioritizations and recommendations for management based upon occurrence status, habitat and threats assessments to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys and Report Completed by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDBLO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plant to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
DUDBLO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to at least 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional NFO 2021 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL DUDBLO-4

Management units: 1, 2, 6, 7

In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plant to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Blochman's dudleya section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, Completed Blochman's Dudleya Section in MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to at least 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
regional NFO 2021 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL DUDBLO-6

Management units: 1, 2, 6, 7

In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to at least 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Blochman's dudleya populations. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Use occurrence status and threats data to develop management recommendations to reduce threats and promote resilience of occurrences. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Blochman's dudleya that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. waiting for precedent action
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, project datasets, and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, Completed Blochman's Dudleya Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-1 MON-IMP-IMG From 2017-2021, inspect Blochman's dudleya occurrences annually on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the IMG regional monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.
DUDBLO-3 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2019, survey historic Blochman's dudleya locations to determine occurrence status; survey and delineate potentially suitable habitat for new occurrences; survey existing occurrences to identify the potential for enhancement and expansion; and at all sites collect data on occurrence status, habitat and threats and determine management needs.
DUDBLO-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2021, begin preparing a section for Blochman's dudleya in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plant to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservatio