Basic Information
Threat: Altered fire regime
Threat Code: ALTFIR
Threat Map
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Legend

Threat Background

MSP Threat/Stressor Background

Goals and Objectives

Goal: The fire management goal for the MSPA is to maintain the long-term ecological integrity and viability of ecosystems, MSP species, and vegetation communities on Conserved Lands in a cost effective manner by managing the current human altered fire regime to promote a fire regime, with lower fire frequency and reduced impacts (direct and indirect) to natural resources.

regional PRE 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-PRP-IGNPL ALTFIR-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Starting in 2019, prepare a Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan detailing measures to reduce wildfire threat to Conserved Lands and at-risk resources in the MSPA. The plan should include: a review of wildfire ignitions and methods for reducing risk; analyses and spatially explicit recommendations for decreasing ignitions along roadways; recommended Project Activity Levels (PAL) for land managers to minimize ignitions from power equipment; analyses of ignition "hotspots" and ignition probabilities relative to at-risk resources with specific management actions to reduce risks; and specifications for establishing a "Fire Watch Program" to reduce ignitions and improve early fire suppression.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Use USGS fire risk analyses, expert and stakeholder input, and information on ignition risk reduction methods to develop a prioritized action plan for wildfire ignition reduction to protect MSP species and vegetation communities most vulnerable to catastrophic wildfire. available for implementation
PRP-2 Submit project data and Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan to MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Completed Fire Ignition Reduction Plan for the MSPA by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-2 MGT-IMP-IGNPL Implement priority actions identified in the Fire Ignition Reduction Plan to reduce catastrophic wildfire ignitions on Conserved Lands in the MSPA.
regional and/or local PRE 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-IGNPL ALTFIR-2

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Implement priority actions identified in the Fire Ignition Reduction Plan to reduce catastrophic wildfire ignitions on Conserved Lands in the MSPA.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement Fire Ignition Reduction Plan recommendations, including road hardening and measures to reduce risk at ignition "hotspots" and priority locations with at-risk resources. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Work with local Fire Safe Council(s) to establish a volunteer "Fire Watch Program" to assist in wildfire prevention during red flag events. waiting for precedent action
IMP-3 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Reduction in the 3-5% of ignitions in the MSPA during 2020-2021 that are responsible for extreme wildfire events 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-1 MGT-PRP-IGNPL Starting in 2019, prepare a Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan detailing measures to reduce wildfire threat to Conserved Lands and at-risk resources in the MSPA. The plan should include: a review of wildfire ignitions and methods for reducing risk; analyses and spatially explicit recommendations for decreasing ignitions along roadways; recommended Project Activity Levels (PAL) for land managers to minimize ignitions from power equipment; analyses of ignition "hotspots" and ignition probabilities relative to at-risk resources with specific management actions to reduce risks; and specifications for establishing a "Fire Watch Program" to reduce ignitions and improve early fire suppression.
regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-RSUP-RAAM ALTFIR-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2017, with the help of a wildfire coordinator, prepare a regional Resource Avoidance Area map (RAA Map) that identifies MSP species/vegetation communities and other at-risk resources to be avoided on Conserved Lands by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The coordinator should work with Preserve owner managers and their responding (local, state and federal) fire agencies to develop the regional RAA Map in a compatible format with fire agencies' Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RSUP-1 The wildfire coordinator should work with land managers to prepare brief handouts for each preserve that accompany the Resource Avoidance Areas map and provide guidance to fire crews about what type of fire suppression actions are to be avoided in specific areas and the preferred sites for staging areas. Available for implementation
RSUP-2 Submit project metadata, datasets and RAA Map to MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Completed RAA Map for Region by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-4 MGT-IMP-RAAM Starting in 2019, coordinate and integrate MSP Resource Avoidance Areas (RAA) Map into local state and federal management agencies GIS Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.
regional and/or local PRE 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-RAAM ALTFIR-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Starting in 2019, coordinate and integrate MSP Resource Avoidance Areas (RAA) Map into local state and federal management agencies GIS Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 The wildfire coordinator should work with local, state and federal fire management agencies to incorporate the MSP RAA Map into their Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems platform(s). The map should be in a compatible format with standardized symbology and mapping criteria used by the fire management agencies. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, MSP RAA Map in 75% of GIS wildland fire decision support systems for local, state and federal firefighting agencies 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-3 MGT-RSUP-RAAM Beginning in 2017, with the help of a wildfire coordinator, prepare a regional Resource Avoidance Area map (RAA Map) that identifies MSP species/vegetation communities and other at-risk resources to be avoided on Conserved Lands by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The coordinator should work with Preserve owner managers and their responding (local, state and federal) fire agencies to develop the regional RAA Map in a compatible format with fire agencies' Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.
regional PRE 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-PRP-PFMGTPL ALTFIR-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2019, conduct an inventory of preserve fire management plans and identify elements to include in standardized preserve fire management plans. Prepare a guidebook for preserve fire management plans that, at a minimum, specifies overall pre-fire, fire suppression and post-fire management actions and includes the RAAM that identifies MSP species/habitats and other at-risk resources to be avoided by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The guidebook should identify standard pre-fire, fire suppression, and post-fire actions for specific MSP species and vegetation communities to be incorporated into Preserve Fire Management Plans.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Create an inventory of fire management plans completed for preserves in the MSPA, identify preserves without plans. On hold
PRP-2 The guidebook should be developed collaboratively with input from land owners and managers, fire management agencies, scientists, and other stakeholders. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of existing fire management plans to inform guidebook recommendations. On hold
PRP-3 Submit project metadata, inventory and guidebook to MSP web portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Completed inventory and preserve fire management plan guidebook by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-1 MGT-PRP-IGNPL Starting in 2019, prepare a Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan detailing measures to reduce wildfire threat to Conserved Lands and at-risk resources in the MSPA. The plan should include: a review of wildfire ignitions and methods for reducing risk; analyses and spatially explicit recommendations for decreasing ignitions along roadways; recommended Project Activity Levels (PAL) for land managers to minimize ignitions from power equipment; analyses of ignition "hotspots" and ignition probabilities relative to at-risk resources with specific management actions to reduce risks; and specifications for establishing a "Fire Watch Program" to reduce ignitions and improve early fire suppression.
ALTFIR-3 MGT-RSUP-RAAM Beginning in 2017, with the help of a wildfire coordinator, prepare a regional Resource Avoidance Area map (RAA Map) that identifies MSP species/vegetation communities and other at-risk resources to be avoided on Conserved Lands by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The coordinator should work with Preserve owner managers and their responding (local, state and federal) fire agencies to develop the regional RAA Map in a compatible format with fire agencies' Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.
regional and/or local PRE 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-RSUP-WFRAP ALTFIR-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, coordinate and establish a Wildland Fire Resource Advisor Program (WFRAP) for locally owned (non-federal and non-state) Conserved Lands to integrate local Resource Advisors (RAs) with federal and state agencies and provide unified guidance on avoidance/protective measures for MSP and other rare species and communities to Incident Command personnel during fire events.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RSUP-1 Using the federal model as a guide, the regional wildfire coordinator should work with land managers and fire agencies to develop a WFRAP specific to MSP locally-owned lands and train land managers to be RAs. Procedures should be established for local RAs to work with federal and state advisors to communicate a unified message to Incident Command personnel during fire events. Available for implementation
RSUP-2 RAs should be encouraged to participate in fire safety organizations, such as the California Wildland Fire Coordinating Group to foster coordination and learn from the experiences and expertise of fire management personnel. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Establish WFRAP by 2021 for all locally-owned lands with trained RAs 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-4 MGT-IMP-RAAM Starting in 2019, coordinate and integrate MSP Resource Avoidance Areas (RAA) Map into local state and federal management agencies GIS Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.
ALTFIR-5 MGT-PRP-PFMGTPL Beginning in 2019, conduct an inventory of preserve fire management plans and identify elements to include in standardized preserve fire management plans. Prepare a guidebook for preserve fire management plans that, at a minimum, specifies overall pre-fire, fire suppression and post-fire management actions and includes the RAAM that identifies MSP species/habitats and other at-risk resources to be avoided by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The guidebook should identify standard pre-fire, fire suppression, and post-fire actions for specific MSP species and vegetation communities to be incorporated into Preserve Fire Management Plans.
ALTFIR-9 MGT-IMP-WFRAP Implement WFRAP for local (non-federal/non-state) lands and work with federal and state RAs to provided unified guidance on avoidance/ protective measures for MSP species and communities to Incident Command personnel during fire events.
regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018
MGT-PRP-FMGTPL ALTFIR-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2017 and 2018, identify MSP rare plant and animal species occurrences at high risk of impacts from fire, including MSP species that do not have species-specific fire recommendations to reduce threat risk prior to fire events and during fire suppression activities.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Based on IMG information and other monitoring data, prepare a map of MSP rare plant and animal occurrences at risk of post-fire invasion by non-native plants. Available for implementation
PRP-2 For at-risk MSP rare plant and animal species where invasive plants pose a post-fire threat: periodically document invasive plant issues for each occurrence; identify invasive plants of concern and why they might become a risk with fire (carry fire, competition, etc); prioritize occurrences most at risk; and develop recommendations for pre-fire management actions for at-risk occurrences. Available for implementation
PRP-3 Identify other fire threats from fire, such as local population extirpation from direct fire impacts, and identify fire management actions to reduce threats, such as targeted fuel management. Available for implementation
PRP-4 Submit project metadata, datasets and management recommendations to MSP Web Portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, complete mapping and identification of post-fire threats to MSP plant and animal occurrences and recommended management. 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-8 MGT-IMP-FMGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority proactive management actions identified through monitoring (Objective FSP-8) to reduce risk of fire for most at-risk MSP rare plant and animal occurrences.
local PRE 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-FMGTPL ALTFIR-8

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority proactive management actions identified through monitoring (Objective FSP-8) to reduce risk of fire for most at-risk MSP rare plant and animal occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement invasive plant control and to reduce risk of post-fire non-native plant invasion at high priority MSP rare plant and animal occurrences. waiting for precedent action Fairbanks Ranch/Rancho Santa Fe Invasive Removal and Stream Enhancement
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and datasets to MSP Web Portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Pre-fire management implemented for =2 very high priority MSP species occurrences by 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-7 MGT-PRP-FMGTPL In 2017 and 2018, identify MSP rare plant and animal species occurrences at high risk of impacts from fire, including MSP species that do not have species-specific fire recommendations to reduce threat risk prior to fire events and during fire suppression activities.
regional and/or local SUPP 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-WFRAP ALTFIR-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Implement WFRAP for local (non-federal/non-state) lands and work with federal and state RAs to provided unified guidance on avoidance/ protective measures for MSP species and communities to Incident Command personnel during fire events.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement the WFRAP specific to MSP locally-owned preserves with trained RAs integrated into fire incident management teams to provide simple, unified message to IC concerning protection of natural resources. Wildfire coordinator will be available as a resource to assist in communicating regional MSP priorities among land managers. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
WFRAP implemented during fires on locally-owned lands from 2019-2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-4 MGT-IMP-RAAM Starting in 2019, coordinate and integrate MSP Resource Avoidance Areas (RAA) Map into local state and federal management agencies GIS Wildland Fire Decision Support Systems.
ALTFIR-5 MGT-PRP-PFMGTPL Beginning in 2019, conduct an inventory of preserve fire management plans and identify elements to include in standardized preserve fire management plans. Prepare a guidebook for preserve fire management plans that, at a minimum, specifies overall pre-fire, fire suppression and post-fire management actions and includes the RAAM that identifies MSP species/habitats and other at-risk resources to be avoided by fire suppression activities, such as equipment staging, dozer line construction, retardant drops,and overland travel. The guidebook should identify standard pre-fire, fire suppression, and post-fire actions for specific MSP species and vegetation communities to be incorporated into Preserve Fire Management Plans.
ALTFIR-6 MGT-RSUP-WFRAP Beginning in 2018, coordinate and establish a Wildland Fire Resource Advisor Program (WFRAP) for locally owned (non-federal and non-state) Conserved Lands to integrate local Resource Advisors (RAs) with federal and state agencies and provide unified guidance on avoidance/protective measures for MSP and other rare species and communities to Incident Command personnel during fire events.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-IMP-FMGT ALTFIR-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Monitor recovery of at-risk MSP species and vegetation communities against the threat of invasive plants the first 3 years following a fire event as identified in post-fire plant and wildlife surveys.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct post fire surveys for invasive plants (Levels 1-4) at MSP plant and animal occurrences and vegetation communities starting the first spring following fire and as needed thereafter to identify priority areas for invasive plant control On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, datasets and postfire management recommendations to MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Invasive plant surveys conducted 1-3 year after wildfire with management recommendations submitted 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement invasive plant control at burned priority sites identified during pre- and post-fire surveys to prevent expansion of invasive plants at priority MSP plant and animal occurrences and vegetation communities.
ALTFIR-12 MON-SURV-FMGT Conduct focused surveys for at-risk MSP plant and animal species for 1-3 years following wildfires and determine their distribution and status. Identify unburned (occupied or unoccupied) refugia within and adjacent to the fire perimeter.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MGT-IMP-FMGT ALTFIR-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Implement invasive plant control at burned priority sites identified during pre- and post-fire surveys to prevent expansion of invasive plants at priority MSP plant and animal occurrences and vegetation communities.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct invasive plant control at priority sites with threats from non-native plants for 2-3 years post-fire or until invasive plants are controlled. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Post-fire invasive plant control prevents expansion of nonnative plants at priority plant and animal occurrences and vegetation communities 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-10 MON-IMP-FMGT Monitor recovery of at-risk MSP species and vegetation communities against the threat of invasive plants the first 3 years following a fire event as identified in post-fire plant and wildlife surveys.
ALTFIR-12 MON-SURV-FMGT Conduct focused surveys for at-risk MSP plant and animal species for 1-3 years following wildfires and determine their distribution and status. Identify unburned (occupied or unoccupied) refugia within and adjacent to the fire perimeter.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
MON-SURV-FMGT ALTFIR-12

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Conduct focused surveys for at-risk MSP plant and animal species for 1-3 years following wildfires and determine their distribution and status. Identify unburned (occupied or unoccupied) refugia within and adjacent to the fire perimeter.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and reports to MSP Web Portal On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Fire impacts and refugia documented for prioritized at-risk MSP plant and animal species following significant fires in 2017-2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
ALTFIR-10 MON-IMP-FMGT Monitor recovery of at-risk MSP species and vegetation communities against the threat of invasive plants the first 3 years following a fire event as identified in post-fire plant and wildlife surveys.
ALTFIR-12 MON-SURV-FMGT Conduct focused surveys for at-risk MSP plant and animal species for 1-3 years following wildfires and determine their distribution and status. Identify unburned (occupied or unoccupied) refugia within and adjacent to the fire perimeter.

Species objectives associated with this threat

regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-FMGT ACAILI-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

Starting in 2017, reduce the potential impact of fire for at risk large populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) by reducing fuel loads of invasive annuals

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Manage thatch and invasive annuals every 3-5 years to reduce fire threat for populations of San Diego thornmint most at risk of fire (populations with ignition probability or fire frequency > 3 or that have burned since 2003) available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and report with management actions to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Fuel Loads and Invasive Grasses Reduced for at Risk Populations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-IMG ACAILI-2

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, occurrence status, habitat and threats data, and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-3 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACAILI-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IMG ACAILI-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities as needed, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species to =20% absolute cover. available for implementation San Diego Thornmint Restoration
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal. available for implementation San Diego Thornmint Restoration
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional NFO 2017 SO
MGT-DEV-BMP ACAILI-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Refine BMPs prepared by CBI in the San Diego Thornmint Adaptive Management Framework (2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal and South County Grasslands projects) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer) In progress
DEV-2 Submit project metadata, management datasets and BMP report to MSP web portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
BMPs for San Diego Thornmint Prepared by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-3 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL ACAILI-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Diego thornmint section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to San Diego thornmint occurrences. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for San Diego thornmint that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. waiting for precedent action
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019 Completed Section for San Diego Thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-1 MGT-IMP-FMGT Starting in 2017, reduce the potential impact of fire for at risk large populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) by reducing fuel loads of invasive annuals
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-3 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at San Diego thornmint occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
ACAILI-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue refining BMPs developed for San Diego thornmint (CBI 2014) by incorporating results of management experiments to control invasive species that threaten populations (e.g., Brachypodium removal studies at Mission Trails and South Crest) and based on research studies (e.g., seed bulking guidelines, seed transfer zones).
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL ACAILI-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented for San Diego Thornmint from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL ACAILI-8

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of the highest priority management actions identified in the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
ACAILI-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL ACAILI-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Diego thornmint section of the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL ACAILI-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for San Diego thornmint to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action California Plant Rescue (CaPR) - San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance's Native Plant Seed Bank
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =2 Highest Priority Actions Implemented for San Diego thornmint from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2016-2017 genetic study to provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing sources of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional NFO 2017 SO
MON-RES-SPEC ACAILI-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6

In 2017, continue field research into soils and habitat relationships and development of habitat suitability and climate change models for San Diego thornmint and other edaphic endemic plants to better understand habitat requirements and to identify and prioritize geographic areas important for connectivity, restoration, and range shifts due to climate change and other threats.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Test soils at potential expansion sites and compare to occupied reference sites to determine site suitability based on soils. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-2 Prepare habitat suitability models under current environmental conditions and for different scenarios of climate change to delineate potential future habitat. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-3 Collect covariate data on vegetation composition and cover (alliance and association-level mapping), soils, invasive plants and other threats for selected populations. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-4 Prioritize locations for conservation, management, and future surveys based on predicted distributions and environmental correlates. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
RES-5 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and report to MSP web portal. In progress Enhancing the Resilience of Edaphic Endemic Plants
Criteria Deadline year
Refined Models and Prioritized Future Survey Locations for San Diego Thornmint by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ACAILI-2 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, annually inspect conserved populations of San Diego thornmint (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect covariate habitat and threats data to determine management needs.
ACAILI-5 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for San Diego thornmint occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
ACAILI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for San Diego thornmint the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-IMG ANACAL-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Using a regional "IMG" monitoring protocol, annually inspect significant Arroyo toad occurrences to assess status and quantify potential threats to determine management needs. AID_20161229_1831_100 Available for implementation
IMP-2 Roads should be examined for high risk areas for arroyo toad crossing and use. Only slow moving vehicles (<5mph) with an occupant experienced in arroyo toad identification should be allowed on high risk roads after sunset (Zimmitti and Mahrdt 1999). Available for implementation
IMP-3 An education program should be implemented that promotes the value of the arroyo toad and informs the public of restrictions and the importance of not disturbing the wildlife. Available for implementation
IMP-4 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. Available for implementation
IMP-5 Submit monitoring and management recommendations to the MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Annual IMG monitoring of Arroyo toad completed 2021
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IMG ANACAL-2

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, conduct routine management actions for arroyo toad identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from detrimental human use (e.g. ORV, trampling, altered hydrology), removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and/or prey on arroyo toads, primarily young) within the known arroyo toad habitat.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from human disturbance, controlling invasive plants, and removing invasive aquatic animals. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SO
MON-SURV-SPEC ANACAL-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Survey known occupied and potantial habitat on Conserved Lands across the MSPA to determine the distribution and abundance of arroyo toad on Conserved Lands. Available for implementation
SURV-2 Collect data on threats and identify management needs to support self-sustaining occurrences. Available for implementation
SURV-3 Continue to collect genetic samples from all arroyo toads captured. Available for implementation
SURV-4 Submit survey data and management recommendations to MSP web portal Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Comprehensive surveys completed for Arroyo toad by 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL ANACAL-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2017, continue to convene with the working group of land managers, scientists, wildlife agencies, and local biologists knowledgeable in arroyo toad to review existing conditions of known occurrences on Conserved Lands, to prepare a plan for management of arroyo toad which considers each site, and to develop a regional monitoring strategy.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Convene working group meetings to review existing conditions of known occurrences. in progress
PRP-2 Use habitat models developed by USGS and results from survey and genetic analyses to identify suitable areas for long-term management. in progress
PRP-3 Conduct site visits as necessary to identify appropriate management actions. in progress
PRP-4 Develop an arroyo toad management plan. The plan should prioritize management actions for the next five years and detail tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, timelines, and budgets. in progress
PRP-5 Submit management plan to MSP web portal in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Arroyo toad management plan completed by 2018 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
ANACAL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, conduct routine management actions for arroyo toad identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from detrimental human use (e.g. ORV, trampling, altered hydrology), removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and/or prey on arroyo toads, primarily young) within the known arroyo toad habitat.
ANACAL-3 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2021, continue genetic studies of the arroyo toad in San Diego Co. (using genetic material collected during past and present regional surveys) to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers; this information will also be used to determine source populations to use in re-establishing arroyo toads in previously occupied areas.
ANACAL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL ANACAL-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, implement high priority actions identified in the Arroyo Toad Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management actions and report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
High priority management actions implemented for Arroyo toad 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
ANACAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG Annually inspect known areas occupied by arroyo toad to identify and reduce threats that can be managed at the local scale including road crossings, illegal encroachment, off-road vehicle use, non-native plants, trash dumping, grazing by livestock, and incompatible human recreation. Where possible, restrict access to arroyo toad upland and breeding habitats to help prevent disturbance to all arroyo toad life history stages (eggs, larvae, metamorphs and adults). Activities should be restricted in upland habitat year-round and in breeding habitat during the core of the breeding season (March to July).
ANACAL-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, conduct routine management actions for arroyo toad identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from detrimental human use (e.g. ORV, trampling, altered hydrology), removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and/or prey on arroyo toads, primarily young) within the known arroyo toad habitat.
ANACAL-3 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2021, continue genetic studies of the arroyo toad in San Diego Co. (using genetic material collected during past and present regional surveys) to evaluate the degree of genetic variation within and between populations and to possibly identify genetic bottlenecks or barriers; this information will also be used to determine source populations to use in re-establishing arroyo toads in previously occupied areas.
ANACAL-4 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2020 and 2021 (assuming adequate rainfall levels), conduct comprehensive arroyo toad surveys using USGS survey protocols throughout the MSPA on Conserved Lands in known occupied and potential habitat to determine current distribution and status of arroyo toad, collect data on threats and habitat covariates, and identify management needs.
ANACAL-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, continue to convene with the working group of land managers, scientists, wildlife agencies, and local biologists knowledgeable in arroyo toad to review existing conditions of known occurrences on Conserved Lands, to prepare a plan for management of arroyo toad which considers each site, and to develop a regional monitoring strategy.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL ANACAL-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for the arroyo toad.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of implementing high priority arroyo toad management actions determined 2021
regional PRE 2018, 2019 SO
MGT-PRP-RESCPL ANACAL-8

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, establish program and permits to allow emergency management actions for the arroyo toad during or immediately following wildfire events, such as implementation of emergency rescue and temporary translocation, to protect from potential loss or extirpation.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Develop protocols, monitoring standards, and permit process for the rescue of Southwestern pond turtles during wildfire events. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Wildfire rescue program established for Arroyo toad in 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
regional SUPP 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-RESCPL ANACAL-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2019, implement arroyo toad rescue program during wildfire events to protect from loss and/or extirpation.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit management data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Wildfire rescue program implemented for Arroyo toad 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
regional POST 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-RESCPL ANACAL-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

Beginning in 2019, monitor the effectiveness of arroyo toad rescue programs following wildfire events, including both translocation or re-introduction efforts.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit monitoring data and report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring of post fire rescue programs for Arroyo toad implemented 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-FMGT ANACAL-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2021, implement post fire management actions to ensure the recovery of arroyo toad at occupied sites following wildfire events, including invasive plant and animal control, debris/sediment removal, erosion control or other management actions as needed following a fire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement needed management actions as determined through BAER or other post fire surveys. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Post fire management actions implemented following wildfire events 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-FMGT ANACAL-12

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2021, monitor stream conditions and the effectiveness of management actions implemented to assist in recovery of arroyo toad for 3 years following wildfire events.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Monitor stream flows and water quality post fire, document recovery of arroyo toad populations and habitat, and effectiveness of any management actions for first 3 years after fire. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring of post fire management actions, stream conditions, and population status for arroyo toads implemented for 3 years post fire 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD

regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MON-RES-SPEC AQUCHR-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Monitor territory occupancy and reproduction in suitable golden eagle habitat within the MSPA. Identify any threats or disturbance to eagles and provide this information to land managers so that management actions can be taken to reduce impacts from human disturbance and other threats. in progress
RES-2 Capture adult eagles at selected territories and attach GPS-transmitters that track eagle movements to identify important foraging areas and to study movement patterns relative to human activity within a landscape matrix of urban, rural, and undeveloped lands. Determine whether eagles switch territories and mates, document individual mortality, and track emigration or short term movements outside of the MSPA. Determine if there are multiple nesting sites within a territory and identify nest sites that are unstable or vulnerable to loss. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-3 Analyze golden eagle foraging habitat data and develop objectives with criteria for managing open areas (grasslands and suitable areas in coastal sage scrub and chaparral) to conditions preferred by foraging eagles and that support abundant prey (e.g., black-tailed jack rabbits, ground squirrels). unknown
RES-4 Measure eagle behavioral responses to human activity at foraging areas. Identify the intensity and type of human activity that affects foraging behavior. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-5 Use the GPS and behavioral response data to model potential impacts to foraging eagles under different scenarios of human disturbance at important foraging areas. Prepare management recommendations to reduce human impacts on foraging eagles, including alignment of trails, restriction of activities, and educational outreach. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
RES-6 Submit project metadata, datasets, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress Biotelemetry Data for Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) Captured in Coastal Southern California
Criteria Deadline year
Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study Report with Management Recommendations Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-2 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.
AQUCHR-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.
AQUCHR-4 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.
regional NFO 2021 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL AQUCHR-3

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Prepare a five year plan for maintaining and enhancing golden eagle foraging habitat in grasslands and suitable areas in open coastal sage scrub and chaparral, and for reducing human impacts to foraging eagles. Use the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and modeling results to identify important foraging areas for golden eagles on Conserved Lands in the MSPA. Specify management to reduce human disturbance in important foraging habitat and to manage invasive annual grasses to promote abundant prey, such as California ground squirrels and black-tailed jackrabbit. Include a mechanism for updating the management plan with monitoring results and specific management recommendations from the Comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Prioritize for management, those nest ledges and trees that are in territories where alternative nest sites are limited. Prepare a nest restoration plan for each prioritized unstable nest ledge or vulnerable nest tree in consultation with a qualified golden eagle biologist. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Establish procedures for managing human activities within the nest site protective zone, including rerouting trails, closing trails during the breeding season, educational outreach, and enforcement. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Submit project metadata and Comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan Completed by 2022 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-1 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.
AQUCHR-2 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.
AQUCHR-4 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.
regional NFO 2021 SO
MON-PRP-MONPL AQUCHR-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11

In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for monitoring golden eagle status and assessing nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include standardized monitoring protocols to track the status of eagles at nesting territories, to monitor use of important foraging areas, and to collect habitat and threats covariate data to inform needed management actions.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Complete a plan to monitor the status and habitat use of eagles over the long term within the MSPA that is based upon the occupancy monitoring study in the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging and Habitat Use Study. The plan should include detailed monitoring objectives, statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, monitoring timeline, and standardized monitoring protocols to record eagles and important habitat and threat attributes. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Develop a plan to rapidly assess the condition of important golden eagle foraging habitat on Conserved Lands across the MSPA using a standardized protocol, statistically valid sampling design, and designated sampling locations. The protocol should describe monitoring methods to collect specific habitat and threat covariates associated with habitat quality, as identified by the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. The results of this monitoring will be used to periodically prioritize sites and develop specific recommendations for managing foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance and enhance habitat quality to support abundant eagle prey. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 A golden eagle expert should prepare a protocol, standardized data sheets, and provide periodic training to land managers in how to safely conduct annual nest inspections and determine management needs with minimal disturbance to eagles. The protocol should assess nest sites during the non-breeding season to identify nest ledges that are unstable and nest trees that are vulnerable to loss from threats such as wildfire, pests, and fungal pathogens. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Submit project metadata, sampling design, sampling locations, protocols and Comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Comprehensive Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan Completed by 2022 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
AQUCHR-1 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study, begun in 2014, to monitor golden eagle territory occupancy and reproduction in the MSPA (see occurrence table) and to track eagle movements to identify important foraging, nesting and roosting areas. Continue to study the influence of human activity and land use on patterns of eagle movement and habitat use, measure the response of eagles to human activity while foraging, and determine whether locally produced floaters recruit into the breeding population.
AQUCHR-2 MON-RES-GEN From 2017 to 2019, continue the Golden Eagle Genetics Study begun in 2014 and collect genetic samples in conjunction with eagle captures for the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study. Analyze these samples to determine the population genetic structure of golden eagles within the MSPA (see occurrence table) and their relationship to eagle populations in other parts of the western United States.
AQUCHR-3 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2021, use the results and recommendations from the Golden Eagle Nesting, Foraging, and Habitat Use Study and the Golden Eagle Genetics Study to develop a comprehensive Golden Eagle Management Plan for managing golden eagle territories with nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat on Conserved Lands within the MSPA (see occurrence table). The plan should include recommendations for managing important foraging habitat to minimize human disturbance to foraging eagles and to improve habitat quality to enhance prey availability, especially during drought periods. The plan should also include specifications to control human disturbance that could discourage nesting, cause nest abandonment, or adversely affect the survival of nestlings, and for managing unstable nest ledges or tree nest sites that are critical to maintaining a breeding pair in territories with limited nesting sites.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2019, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-IMG BACVAN-1

Management units: 3, 4, 6

Beginning in 2017, inspect Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IMG BACVAN-2

Management units: 3, 4, 6

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-SBPL BACVAN-4

Management units: 3, 4, 6

In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Encinitas baccharis section in the MSP Species Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress Wed Demo
PRP-2 Design the seed collection plan to incorporate genetic study results and with recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Encinitas Baccharis Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Encinitas baccharis occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-SBPL BACVAN-5

Management units: 1, 7

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Encinitas Baccharis from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2018 SO
MGT-PRP-MGTPL BACVAN-6

Management units: 4, 5, 8

Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Encinitas baccharis occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Encinitas Baccharis that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Encinitas Baccharis Section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, inspect Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
BACVAN-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring at Encinitas baccharis occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
BACVAN-3 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Encinitas baccharis occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
BACVAN-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009; KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
BACVAN-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BACVAN-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
BACVAN-9 MON-RES-SPEC Determine the population dynamics of Encinitas baccharis in response to natural and altered fire frequencies that may affect successional processes and population dynamics. The study should begin when the next fire burns an Encinitas baccharis occurrence and include subsequently burned occurrences to research post-fire recovery mechanisms (e.g., resprouter vs. obligate seeder) and circumstances in which post-fire management is necessary to facilitate robust post-fire recovery. Use results to identify postfire management actions for Encinitas baccharis to assist in recovery of burned populations.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL BACVAN-7

Management units: 1, 7

Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Encinitas Baccharis from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Encinitas baccharis to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BACVAN-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL BACVAN-8

Management units: 1, 7

Beginning in 2019, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BACVAN-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL Begin preparing a section for Encinitas baccharis in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or expand occurrences on Conserved Lands based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prioritize management recommendations to maintain large occurrences and enhance at least 3 small occurrences (see occurrence table). Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
BACVAN-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Encinitas baccharis section of the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local POST 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-RES-SPEC BACVAN-9

Management units: 4, 5, 8

Determine the population dynamics of Encinitas baccharis in response to natural and altered fire frequencies that may affect successional processes and population dynamics. The study should begin when the next fire burns an Encinitas baccharis occurrence and include subsequently burned occurrences to research post-fire recovery mechanisms (e.g., resprouter vs. obligate seeder) and circumstances in which post-fire management is necessary to facilitate robust post-fire recovery. Use results to identify postfire management actions for Encinitas baccharis to assist in recovery of burned populations.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Encinitas Baccharis Fire Study Completed and Report Submitted by 5 Years Post Fire 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA

regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2020 SS
MON-IMP-IMG BLOCLE-1

Management units: 3, 4, 6

Beginning in 2018, inspect extant San Diego goldenstar occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BLOCLE-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring conducted in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Diego goldenstar occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-IMG BLOCLE-2

Management units: 3, 4, 6

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring conducted in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Diego goldenstar occurrence(s) on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform as needed routine management activities, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
BLOCLE-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect extant San Diego goldenstar occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.

regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-1

Management units: 2, 3, 4

From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Following best practices in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan, design cactus scrub enhancement and restoration projects to provide high quality nesting and foraging habitat with large patches of cacti >1 m tall in a mosaic of open scrub that provides sufficient food resources for reproduction and survival, especially during drought. As they become available, incoporate the results from the Cactus Wren Demography, Foraging and Arthropod Study to create restoration palettes that favor plant species associated with important arthropod food resources. Design planting layouts to maximize water availability by allocating a portion of the plantings to more mesic sites, such as ravines, at the bottom of slopes, and on northerly and easterly aspects. Control invasive nonnative plants to =20% absolute cover to reduce competition with native plants for water and light. some occurrences are in progress Otay River Valley Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration and Enhancement , Salt Creek Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Project
IMP-2 Implement management actions, as needed, to reduce anthropogenic predation on wrens and their nests in fragmented habitats bordered by development where wrens are vulnerable to predation by cats, Cooper's hawks, corvids and other human-subsidized predators. Actions could include removing selected trees within or bordering cactus scrub that provide hunting, roosting, and nesting perches for hawks and corvids and avoiding cactus scrub restoration in areas where the terrain and location make wrens especially vulnerable to predation. Other measures could involve humanely removing feral cats from Conserved Lands and providing educational material and signage encouraging neighboring homeowners to keep their cats indoors so that wrens are protected and cats are safe from predation by wild animals, such as coyotes. some occurrences are in progress Otay River Valley Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration and Enhancement , Salt Creek Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Project
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =3 High Priority Management Actions Implemented from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-2

Management units: 2, 3, 4

From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Collect vegetation data to document success of cactus scrub restoration projects. This can include monitoring the height, diameter and survival of planted cactus and the composition and percent cover of native and nonnative shrubs, forbs and grasses. Document wren use of restored cactus scrub. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit restoration and enhancement project metadata, management datasets, and reports to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
IMP-3 Conduct a meta-analysis of habitat restoration data and cactus wren population survey data to determine whether short-term success criteria have been achieved for habitat restoration actions and for wren populations in south San Diego County. Based upon these results, prepare recommendations for the 2022-2031 management strategy for coastal cactus wren. These broad recommendations can be used in 2022 to update the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan with the next set of success criteria and specific, prioritized management actions. waiting for precedent action
IMP-4 Submit cactus wren habitat restoration and population meta-analysis datasets, results, and management strategy recommendations for south San Diego County to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Success Criteria 2013-2021: Restore =70 Acres of High Quality Cactus Scrub and Increase the Combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon Genetic Clusters to =75 Territories on C 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-SURV-SPEC CAMBRU-3

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Conduct 2 rounds of protocol surveys each year for coastal cactus wrens in mapped cactus at long term monitoring sites and expand monitoring sites, as needed, to include restoration sites and newly conserved cactus scrub. Use standardized protocols to document the number of wrens observed, age, sex, pairing and nesting status, and color band combinations, and to assess habitat for shrub overgrowth and crowding, invasive plants, unhealthy or dead cactus, and dominant shrub and cactus species. Update cactus mapping at restored and newly conserved sites. in progress
SURV-2 In conjunction with the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, focus on collecting banding status data to better understand cactus wren population dynamics, adult and juvenile survival, and dispersal capabilities in south San Diego County. unknown
SURV-3 Submit project metadata, cactus wren survey and habitat assessment datasets, analyses and survey reports to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Cactus Wren Surveys and Habitat Assessments Completed 2017-2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MON-RES-SPEC CAMBRU-4

Management units: 2, 3, 4

From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Capture, uniquely color band, and monitor cactus wrens regularly during the breeding season to collect data on territory and breeding status, nesting phenology, nest fate, number of eggs/nestlings/fledglings per nest, and annual productivity, dispersal and survival. Measure habitat quality at each territory by characterizing the vegetation and by sampling arthropod communities associated with bare ground and 8 plant species common to cactus scrub. Determine nestling diets by collecting fecal samples during banding and using DNA barcoding methods to identify the arthropod taxa fed to nestlings. in progress
RES-2 Identify arthropods important in the diet of nestling cactus wrens based on a DNA barcoding identification of arthropods in fecal samples obtained from the south San Diego County study, from the results of a similar study in Orange County, and from a literature search of adult and nestling cactus wren diets across their range. Evaluate the occurrence of arthropod taxa important to wren diets in association with 8 specific plant species and bare ground to determine those habitat attributes in cactus scrub that provide significant food resources for cactus wrens. Analyze wren reproductive parameters in relation to expected arthropod food availability based on the habitat attributes of each territory. Use the results to develop specific management recommendations for plant restoration palettes and for restoring the composition and cover of plants and bare ground that enhance food availablity for wrens. Determine how plants might be situated in the landscape to enhance arthropod food availability during droughts, such as planting a portion of plants in more mesic sites in ravines, at the bottom of slopes and on northerly and easterly aspects. in progress
RES-3 Project metadata, datasets, analyses, and report with specific management recommendations will be submitted to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study and Report with Management Recommendations Completed by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SO
MON-RES-GEN CAMBRU-5

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Collaborate with the Natural Community Coalition to repeat the 2012 Southern California Coastal Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015) for the Coastal Orange County-Camp Pendleton, San Diego/El Cajon, Otay, and San Pasqual genetic clusters. Evaluate whether the clusters with low effective population sizes and potential inbreeding have changed their levels of genetic diversity in the intervening 6 years with management to increase cactus scrub and improve connectivity, from translocating wrens between genetic clusters, or from population declines during a long and intense drought. in progress
RES-2 Analyze genetic and reproduction data from Orange County and San Diego County studies to determine if reproduction may be adversely affected by inbreeding or low genetic diversity. If lack of genetic diversity and inbreeding show signs of depressing productivity, then evaluate and prioritize specific management recommendations to increase gene flow, such as switching eggs or translocating individuals between genetic clusters over the short term and restoring habitat to expand populations and improve connectivity within and between genetic clusters over the long term. in progress
RES-3 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses, and report with specific management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Genetic Study Completed and Report Submitted by 2020 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-NUR CAMBRU-6

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement BMPs when harvesting and growing cactus at a nursery in preparation for transplant into natural lands for cactus restoration projects and to provide an emergency source of cactus following wildfire. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
IMP-2 Grow and supply cactus pads, segments, and entire plants from locally harvested native cactus with a composition of species reflecting what naturally occurs in each geographic area. The North County Cactus Nursery should cactus to projects in MUs 6 and 8 and those areas in MU 4 dominated by prickly pear cactus. The South County Cactus Nursery should supply cactus to MUs 2 and 3 and to those areas in MU 4 dominated by coast cholla. The amount of cactus produced will be determined periodically based upon: management recommendations from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan; from ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley and Lake Hodges; an evaluation of planned and ongoing cactus restoration projects; and an assessment of cactus needed to be kept in reserve for future post-fire rehabilitation efforts. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
IMP-3 Submit project metadata, nursery plans, and reports with information on harvesting, growing and distributing cactus for restoration projects to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress North County Cactus Nursery and Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration (2015-2018)
Criteria Deadline year
Cactus Nurseries Established in North and South San Diego County to Provide Sufficient Cactus for Restoration and PostFire Rehabilitation 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-11 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-IEX CAMBRU-7

Management units: 5, 6

In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Following best practices, design cactus scrub enhancement and restoration projects to provide high quality nesting and foraging habitat with large patches of cacti >1 m tall in a mosaic of open scrub that provides sufficient food resources for reproduction and survival, especially during drought years when arthropod food resources are limiting. As they become available, incoporate the results from the Cactus Wren Demography, Foraging and Arthropod Study to create restoration palettes that favor plant species associated wtih important wren food resources. Design planting layouts to maximize water availability by allocating a portion of the plantings to more mesic sites, such as ravines, at the bottom of slopes, and on northerly and easterly aspects. Control invasive nonnative plants to =20% absolute cover to reduce competition with native plants for water and light. in progress Hodges Reservoir-Bernardo Bay Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Grant Project
IMP-2 Implement management actions, as needed, to reduce anthropogenic predation on wrens and their nests in fragmented habitats bordered by development where wrens are vulnerable to predation by cats, Cooper's hawks, corvids and other human-subsidized predators. Actions could include removing selected trees within or bordering cactus scrub that provide hunting, roosting, and nesting perches for hawks and corvids and avoiding cactus scrub restoration in areas where the terrain and location make wrens especially vulnerable to predation. Other measures could involve humanely removing feral cats from Conserved Lands and providing educational material and signage encouraging neighboring homeowners to keep their cats indoors so that wrens are protected and cats are safe from predation by wild animals, such as coyotes. in progress Hodges Reservoir-Bernardo Bay Cactus Wren Habitat Restoration Grant Project
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =2 High Priority Management Actions Implemented from ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley and Lake Hodges 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-MGTPL CAMBRU-8

Management units: 5, 6

From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Collect vegetation data to document success of cactus scrub restoration projects. This can include monitoring the height, diameter and survival of planted cactus and the composition and percent cover of native and nonnative shrubs, forbs and grasses. Document wren use of restored cactus scrub. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit restoration and enhancement project metadata, management datasets, and reports to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-3 Conduct a meta-analysis of habitat restoration data and cactus wren population survey data to determine whether short-term success criteria have been achieved for habitat restoration actions and for wren populations in north San Diego County. Based upon these results, prepare recommendations for a 2022-2031 management strategy for coastal cactus wren. These broad recommendations can be used in 2022 to prepare a North San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan with specific, prioritized management actions. waiting for precedent action
IMP-4 Submit cactus wren habitat restoration and population meta-analysis datasets, results, and management strategy recommendations for north San Diego County to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Success Criteria 2013-2021: Restore =75 Acres of High Quality Cactus Scrub and Increase the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges Genetic Cluster to =90 Territories on Conserve 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-9 MGT-IMP-FMGT Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.
regional and/or local PRE 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-FMGT CAMBRU-9

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Implement prefire management to reduce potential severity and impacts from future fire at prioritized cactus wren occurrences and habitats most at risk from wildfire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement management actions to reduce severity of potential fires through opening up dense cactus scrub habitats by trimming and thinning shrubs to maintain open scrub, maintaining bare ground buffers around large intact cactus patches, and by reducing nonnative grasses and herbs that can carry wildfire into cactus patches. Design management actions to avoid significant impacts to CSS vegetation or to other MSP species. Available for implementation
IMP-2 As opportunities arise, implement management actions to reduce potential fire impacts in conjunction with other ongoing enhancement and restoration projects for cactus wrens. Available for implementation
IMP-3 Submit project metadata and management actions to the MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, Implement =1 Management Action to Reduce Impacts from Future Fire at Prioritized Wren Occurrences 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-1 MGT-IMP-MGTPL From 2017 through 2021, continue implementing high priority management actions to: expand coastal cactus wren populations; rehabilitate habitat destroyed in the 2003 Cedar and 2007 Harris wildfires; improve connectivity within and between the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table); and manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings. These priority management actions are identified in the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan prepared in 2015.
CAMBRU-2 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions from the 2015 South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan. In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for the combined Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table) in south San Diego County. These results will be used in 2022 to update management recommendations and success criteria for the South San Diego County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan.
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MON-IMP-FMGT CAMBRU-10

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Prepare postfire habitat monitoring protocols and sampling design to determine the status of coastal cactus wrens and characterize cactus scrub recovery following wildfire. Use the monitoring results to identify management actions to ensure postfire recovery of high quality cactus scrub at occupied cactus wren sites and at unoccupied cactus scrub sites important for wren population expansion and connectivity within and between genetic clusters. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, cactus wren postfire survey and habitat monitoring data, annual reports with management recommendations, and a final report documenting project methods and results to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Monitoring of Cactus Wrens and Habitats with Annual Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Loss of connectivityLOSCON
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL From 2017-2021, collect data on the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions to restore cactus scrub to expand coastal cactus wren populations and enhance connectivity within the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster (see occurrence table). In 2021, compile data from all restoration projects and determine the effectiveness of cumulative management actions for north San Diego County. Use these results to develop a management strategy that will provide the basis for preparing a North County Coastal Cactus Wren Habitat Conservation and Management Plan in 2022.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SO
MGT-IMP-FMGT CAMBRU-11

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality cactus scrub to allow for recovery of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement management actions to restore cactus scrub habitat destroyed by wildfire. These management actions may include planting large >1m cactus to create nesting and roosting habitat for immediate postfire use by cactus wrens, planting pads and segments to improve habitat over the longer term, and to seed or plant native shrubs and forbs as needed to enhance habitat suitability and increase available arthropod food resources (use recommendations from the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study). Control invasive nonnative plants to =20% absolute cover to reduce postfire invasion of nonnative plants and to allow postfire recovery of native plants by reducing competition for water and light. Control erosion and human use impacts while habitat is recoverying. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management actions to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Management in Priority Cactus Wren Habitats 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
CAMBRU-3 MON-SURV-SPEC From 2017 to 2021, use a standardized protocol to survey for cactus wrens to determine territory, pairing and banding status and collect habitat covariate data in cactus scrub habitats on Conserved Lands in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). In 2018 and 2021, expand surveys to include the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges genetic cluster.
CAMBRU-4 MON-RES-SPEC From 2017 to 2019, continue the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study begun in 2015 to investigate relationships between habitat quality and wren reproduction, dispersal and survival in the Otay and San Diego/El Cajon genetic clusters (see occurrence table). Habitat quality is measured at the territory scale and characterized by vegetation attributes, arthropod community composition, nestling diet, and potential availability of arthropod prey based on plant associations. Use the results to develop specific restoration recommendations to enhance habitat suitability and food resources important to cactus wren reproduction and survival.
CAMBRU-5 MON-RES-GEN From 2017-2019, in conjunction with standardized surveys and with banding activities for the Coastal Cactus Wren Demography, Vegetation and Arthropod Study, collect feather or blood samples from nestling and adult cactus wren at sites where wrens were sampled in 2011-2012 for the Southern California Cactus Wren Genetics Study (Barr et al. 2013, 2015). Determine if genetic diversity and effective population size have changed in the Otay, San Diego/El Cajon, and San Pasqual genetic clusters (see occurrence table) and evaluate whether there are potential threats to long-term population sustainability from inbreeding. Based on these results, prepare specific recommendations for managing gene flow and/or population expansion to enhance genetic diversity and effective population size.
CAMBRU-6 MGT-IMP-NUR From 2017-2021, continue operation of the North San Diego County Cactus Nursery and support a South San Diego County Cactus Nursery to supply cactus to land managers to enhance, restore and create coastal cactus wren habitat. Grow cactus pads, segments and entire plants sufficient for restoration projects to expand and enhance cactus scrub habitat and as a source of plants for immediate habitat rehabilitation following severe wildfire.
CAMBRU-7 MGT-IMP-IEX In 2017-2021, continue supporting restoration of cactus scrub based upon ICR's Restoration Analyses for the San Pasqual Valley/Lake Hodges coastal cactus wren genetic cluster (see occurrence table) to: rehabilitate cactus scrub destroyed or degraded by the 2007 Witch Fire; to expand occurrences, particularly adjacent to Lake Hodges; to improve connectivity within the genetic cluster; and as needed, to manage high risk of anthropogenic predation of adults and nestlings.
CAMBRU-10 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of coastal cactus wren occurrences affected by the wildfire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing postfire cactus scrub habitat recovery. Collect habitat recovery data at unoccupied cactus scrub sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover wren populations and important cactus scrub habitat patches.

regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2020 SL
MON-IMP-IMG CLICHA-1

Management units: 3, 4

Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct regional monitoring protocol surveys to assess abundance status and quantify potential threats. on hold
IMP-2 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine if routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IMG CLICHA-2

Management units: 3, 4

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species to =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit monitoring and management data to the SC-MTX website portal. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit monitoring and management data to the SC-MTX website portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional NFO 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL CLICHA-3

Management units: 3, 4

In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. On hold
PRP-2 Prepare the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. On hold
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. On hold
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). On hold
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. On hold
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed San Miguel Savory Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL CLICHA-4

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2024, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for San Miguel Savory from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2019, 2020 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL CLICHA-5

Management units: 3, 4

In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to San Miguel savory occurrences. on hold
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. on hold
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for San Miguel savory that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. on hold
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
By 2020, Completed San Miguel Savory Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-1 MON-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2018, inspect San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018, and 2020 at San Miguel savory occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
CLICHA-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan that incorporates best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should include recommendations to collect and store seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
CLICHA-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL CLICHA-6

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2024, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for San Miguel Savory Section from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2020, begin implementing high priority actions for San Miguel savory in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
CLICHA-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL CLICHA-7

Management units: 3, 4

In 2020, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
CLICHA-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2019, begin preparing a San Miguel savory section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to enhance at least 3 occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Prepare prioritized management recommendations for re-establishment of historic occurrences or establishment of new occurrences in suitable habitat, if determined to be necessary for gene flow and population persistence. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
CLICHA-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2020, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for San Miguel savory in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

regional and/or local NFO 2021 VF
MON-IMP-IMG CYLCAL-1

Management units: 1, 2, 3

In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus, and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed 2021 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
ERIPAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
FERVIR-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MON-IMP-IMG DEICON-1

Management units: 3

In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine if routine management or more intensive management is warranted. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP web portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed Annually with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-IMG DEICON-2

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities as needed, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species to =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring and management recommendations to the MSP web portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2017 SS
MGT-DEV-BMP DEICON-3

Management units: 3

In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Conduct experiments using mowing, prescribed burns herbicide and potentially grazing to control invasive non-native grasses and forbs at a landscape-scale and to compare drill seeding versus hand broadcast seeding in order to determine economical and effect. in progress
DEV-2 Based upon experiment results, develop explicit BMPs for the restoration of Otay tarplant. Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and BMP report to MSP web portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
BMPs Developed for Restoration of Otay tarplant by 2017 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-IEX DEICON-5

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2018, and continuing for 3 years at the 3 Otay tarplant restoration sites initiated under the South County Grasslands project, use BMPs to maintain the maximum occupied extent and a surrounding buffer area equal to 25% of this extent by preventing ground disturbance and reducing nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% total cover and thatch to <5 cm tall.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Conduct invasive plant control annually using BMPs until success criteria are met and then as needed thereafter. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, 3 Otay Tarplant Occurrences Enhanced/Established and Reports Submitted 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
regional NFO 2018 SS
MGT-PRP-MGTPL DEICON-6

Management units: 3

In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for Otay tarplant in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Otay tarplant occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence size, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Otay tarplant that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Submit project metadata, project datasets, and the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Otay Tarplant Section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through the annual IMG monitoring at Otay tarplant occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-5 MGT-IMP-IEX Beginning in 2018, and continuing for 3 years at the 3 Otay tarplant restoration sites initiated under the South County Grasslands project, use BMPs to maintain the maximum occupied extent and a surrounding buffer area equal to 25% of this extent by preventing ground disturbance and reducing nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% total cover and thatch to <5 cm tall.
DEICON-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
DEICON-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
DEICON-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-MGTPL DEICON-7

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata and management datasets, report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Otay tarplant from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MON-IMP-MGTPL DEICON-8

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin monitoring the effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2019, begin implementation of highest priority management actions for Otay tarplant identified in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional NFO 2018 SS
MGT-PRP-SBPL DEICON-9

Management units: 3

In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Otay tarplant section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-2 Prepare a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). some occurrences are in progress
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. some occurrences are in progress
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2019, Completed Otay Tarplant Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, begin annual inspections of extant occurrences of Otay tarplant on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record spatial extent, estimate abundance, and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
DEICON-3 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017 continue the collaboration with the South County Grasslands Project initiated in 2014 to develop BMPs for landscape-scale restoration of Otay tarplant habitat in MU3 that includes testing methods of seeding and invasive plant control so that nonnative plants and thatch are reduced to less than 20% relative cover and thatch to <5 cm tall and native plants to at least 25% relative cover. These percent cover criteria could be revised based on data collected from an acceptable reference site.
DEICON-4 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, continue a study begun in 2016 to characterize the population genetic structure, gene flow, and genetic diversity for Otay tarplant occurrences (see occurrence table). The study will determine if there is evidence of mixed ploidy levels within or among occurrences; evaluate vulnerability of occurrences to genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity; assess the level of gene flow among occurrences; identify if there are signatures of genetic bottlenecks or low genetic diversity in occurrences that have undergone recent reductions; and look for evidence of local population adaptation. Based on the results of the genetic analyses, management recommendations will include whether common garden and reciprocal transplantations are necessary before proceeding with population enhancement or restoration and will provide specific recommendations for collecting, bulking and distributing seed to enhance existing occurrences or establish new occurrences.
DEICON-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2018, begin preparing an Otay tarplant section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain and expand conserved occurrences based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than or equal to 20% absolute cover within the occurrence.
DEICON-10 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Otay tarplant to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-SBPL DEICON-10

Management units: 3

In 2019, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Otay tarplant to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. some occurrences are in progress
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. some occurrences are in progress
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, > 1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Otay Tarplant from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
DEICON-9 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2018, begin preparing a section for Otay tarplant in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and provide guidelines for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for:collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2020 SS
MON-IMP-IMG DUDVAR-1

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

In 2018 and 2020, inspect variegated dudleya occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed in 2018 and 2020 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDVAR-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018 and 2020 at variegated dudleya on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SS
MGT-IMP-IMG DUDVAR-2

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6

Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions as identified through the IMG monitoring in 2016, 2018 and 2020 at variegated dudleya on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform as needed routine management activities, such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. available for implementation
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
DUDVAR-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2018 and 2020, inspect variegated dudleya occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

regional PRE 2018, 2019 SL
MGT-PRP-RESCPL EMYMAR-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

Beginning in 2018, establish program and permits to allow emergency management actions for the Southwestern pond turtle during or immediately following wildfire events, such as implementation of emergency rescue and temporary translocation, to protect from potential loss or extirpation.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Develop protocols, monitoring standards, and permit process for the rescue of Southwestern pond turtles during wildfire events. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Wildfire rescue program established for Southwestern pond turtle in 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Code Obj. code Statement
EMYMAR-5 MGT-IMP-IMG From 2017 to 2021, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from disturbance, removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and or prey on western pond turtle, primarily young) within the known occupied and suitable habitat.
regional SUPP 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-RESCPL EMYMAR-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

Beginning in 2019, implement Southwestern pond turtle rescue program during wildfire events to protect from loss and/or extirpation

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit management data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Wildfire rescue program implemented for Southwestern pond turtle 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Code Obj. code Statement
EMYMAR-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions as identified in the Southwestern pond turtle management plan.
regional POST 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-RESCPL EMYMAR-11

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

Beginning in 2019, monitor the effectiveness of Southwestern pond turtle rescue programs following wildfire events, including translocation or re-introduction efforts.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit monitoring data and report to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring of post fire rescue programs for Southwest pond turtles implemented 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Code Obj. code Statement
EMYMAR-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, implement highest priority management actions as identified in the Southwestern pond turtle management plan.
EMYMAR-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2019, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for the Southwestern pond turtle.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-FMGT EMYMAR-12

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

From 2017 to 2021, implement post fire management actions to ensure the recovery of Southwest pond turtle at occupied sites following wildfire events, including invasive plant and animal control, debris/sediment removal, erosion control or other management actions as needed after fire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement needed management actions as determined through BAER or other post fire surveys. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Post fire management actions implemented following wildfire events 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Code Obj. code Statement
EMYMAR-5 MGT-IMP-IMG From 2017 to 2021, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from disturbance, removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and or prey on western pond turtle, primarily young) within the known occupied and suitable habitat.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-FMGT EMYMAR-13

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

From 2017 to 2021, monitor stream conditions and the effectiveness of management actions implemented to assist in recovery of Southwestern pond turtle for 3 years following wildfire events.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Monitor stream flows and water quality postfire, document recovery of southwestern pond turtle populations and habitat, and effectiveness of any management actions for first 3 years after fire. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring of post fire management actions, stream conditions, and population status for Southwest pond turtles implemented for 3 years post fire 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Code Obj. code Statement
EMYMAR-5 MGT-IMP-IMG From 2017 to 2021, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG regional protocol monitoring, including protecting populations from disturbance, removing invasive plants, and removing aquatic predators and exotic species (which compete and or prey on western pond turtle, primarily young) within the known occupied and suitable habitat.
EMYMAR-11 MON-IMP-RESCPL Beginning in 2019, monitor the effectiveness of Southwestern pond turtle rescue programs following wildfire events, including translocation or re-introduction efforts.

regional and/or local NFO 2021 VF
MON-IMP-IMG ERIPAL-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed 2021 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CYLCAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus, and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
FERVIR-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

regional NFO 2017, 2018 SL
MON-DEV-MODL EUPEDI-1

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

In 2017-2018, develop habitat suitability models for Quino checkerspot, host plants, and nectaring plants under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Submit project metadata, modeling datasets, results and report to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Quino Checkerspot Current and Future Climate Habitat Models and Report Completed in 2017 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019 SL
MON-PRP-MONPL EUPEDI-2

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

Beginning in 2017, prepare a long-term Quino checkerspot metapopulation monitoring plan to track population distribution, abundance, and phenology, and to assess habitats and threats at checkerspot occurrences (see occurrence table), historically occupied and unoccupied high suitability sites across Conserved Lands in the MSPA. The monitoring plan should build upon previous surveys, habitat assessments and modeling to include specific monitoring questions, the sampling frame within the MSPA, monitoring methods, a statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, timeline, and standardized protocols for determining the status and abundance of larval and adult butterflies and for assessing habitat and threats at each sampling site to determine management needs. The plan should stipulate that for each survey year, a report be prepared with site-specific management recommendations. The monitoring plan will be piloted with field surveys in 2018 to determine if adjustments need to be made and will be finalized in 2019 and then added to the final management plan in 2021 to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Work with the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers and other stakeholders to develop the monitoring plan. in progress
PRP-2 Include fire risk and climate change modeling results to provide management recommendations in relation to fire and climate refugia and to reduce fire risk at occurrences. in progress
PRP-3 Submit project metadata, datasets and Quino Checkerspot Monitoring Plan to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Quino Checkerspot Metapopulation Monitoring Plan Completed in 2019 2019
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-1 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017-2018, develop habitat suitability models for Quino checkerspot, host plants, and nectaring plants under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans.
EUPEDI-1 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017-2019, develop habitat suitability models for Quino checkerspot, host plants, and nectaring plants under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans.
EUPEDI-3 MON-IMP-MONPL In 2018 conduct pilot monitoring to evaluate monitoring methodology and sampling design and locations, and prepare recommendations for any adjustments to the monitoring plan. From 2019 to 2021, implement monitoring annually and submit data with management recommendations.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MONPL EUPEDI-3

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

In 2018 conduct pilot monitoring to evaluate monitoring methodology and sampling design and locations, and prepare recommendations for any adjustments to the monitoring plan. From 2019 to 2021, implement monitoring annually and submit data with management recommendations.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Monitoring Implemented and Data with Recommendations Submitted Annually 2021
regional NFO 2017, 2018 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL EUPEDI-4

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

In 2017-2018, develop a section for Quino checkerpot nectaring forbs and host plants in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to enhance and restore habitat for the butterfly. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009; KEW 2016) to provide guidelines for collecting and providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds to provide source material with consideration of potential genetic consequences; for management oriented research; seed bulking; and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or establish new occurrences of Quino checkerspot.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Quino checkerspot section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. on hold
PRP-2 Design a seed collection plan to collect seeds over multiple years, collect seeds several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines from small occurrences (<1,000 plants) and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should include guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest and based on genetic studies as available. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. waiting for precedent action
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). waiting for precedent action
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. waiting for precedent action
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By end 2017, Completed Quino Checkerspot Section in MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-5 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2018, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot to collect and store seeds to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new butterfly occurrences.
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL EUPEDI-5

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

In 2018, begin implementing the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot to collect and store seeds to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new butterfly occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for butterfly habitat enhancement, expansion, and restoration projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Quino checkerspot from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking, and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017-2018, develop a section for Quino checkerpot nectaring forbs and host plants in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to enhance and restore habitat for the butterfly. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009; KEW 2016) to provide guidelines for collecting and providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds to provide source material with consideration of potential genetic consequences; for management oriented research; seed bulking; and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or establish new occurrences of Quino checkerspot.
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL EUPEDI-6

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Work with the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers and other stakeholders to develop prioritized management actions. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Include fire risk and climate change modeling results to provide management recommendations in relation to fire and climate refugia and to reduce fire risk at occurrences. waiting for precedent action
PRP-3 Submit project metadata and management and monitoring plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan Completed in 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-1 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017-2019, develop habitat suitability models for Quino checkerspot, host plants, and nectaring plants under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans.
EUPEDI-1 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017-2018, develop habitat suitability models for Quino checkerspot, host plants, and nectaring plants under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans.
EUPEDI-4 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017-2018, develop a section for Quino checkerpot nectaring forbs and host plants in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to enhance and restore habitat for the butterfly. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (e.g., Wall 2009; KEW 2016) to provide guidelines for collecting and providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds to provide source material with consideration of potential genetic consequences; for management oriented research; seed bulking; and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or establish new occurrences of Quino checkerspot.
EUPEDI-9 MGT-IMP-CAPR From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agencies to collect eggs and captive rear larvae to use in reestablishing and augmenting wild Quino checkerspot populations. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL EUPEDI-7

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

Beginning in 2018, implement highest priority management actions for Quino checkerspot on Conserved Lands.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Management actions to be determined by the Quino Checkerspot Management Plan. waiting for precedent action Quino Habitat Restoration
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action Quino Habitat Restoration
Criteria Deadline year
=1 Management actions implemented for Quino checkerspot by 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL EUPEDI-8

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2018 to 2021, monitor the effectiveness of management actions implemented for Quino checkerspot on Conserved Lands

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, monitoring data and reports to MSP web portal waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness Monitoring Completed within 1 Year of Management Actions 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, implement highest priority management actions for Quino checkerspot on Conserved Lands.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-CAPR EUPEDI-9

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agencies to collect eggs and captive rear larvae to use in reestablishing and augmenting wild Quino checkerspot populations. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Support the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers, San Diego Zoo Global and other stakeholders to implement the captive rearing. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Captive Rearing Implemented and Report Submitted by 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
EUPEDI-10 MGT-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agenices to translocate captive bred Quino checkerspot larvae to historically occupied habitat.
EUPEDI-11 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, support efforts by the wildlife agencies to monitor the effectivenss of translocated captive bred Quinoo checkerspot larvae. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-TRAN EUPEDI-10

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agenices to translocate captive bred Quino checkerspot larvae to historically occupied habitat.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Support the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers, San Diego Zoo Global and other stakeholders to implement the translocation project. in progress
IMP-1 Support the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers, San Diego Zoo Global and other stakeholders to implement the translocation project. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to MSP web portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Translocation Implemented by 2020 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin developing an interim 5 year Quino Checkerspot Management Plan that focuses on habitat enhancement and restoration and fire management, and includes the information from the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan for Quino checkerspot, at known occupied and historically occupied sites. In 2021, update and finalize the management plan with results from the captive rearing and translocation projects and combine with the monitoring plan to create a comprehensive Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
EUPEDI-9 MGT-IMP-CAPR From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agencies to collect eggs and captive rear larvae to use in reestablishing and augmenting wild Quino checkerspot populations. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
EUPEDI-11 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, support efforts by the wildlife agencies to monitor the effectivenss of translocated captive bred Quinoo checkerspot larvae. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
regional NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-TRAN EUPEDI-11

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2017 to 2021, support efforts by the wildlife agencies to monitor the effectivenss of translocated captive bred Quinoo checkerspot larvae. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring data and reportto MSP web portal in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Translocation Monitoring Completed and Report Submitted by 2021 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-9 MGT-IMP-CAPR From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agencies to collect eggs and captive rear larvae to use in reestablishing and augmenting wild Quino checkerspot populations. Use results to finalize the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan.
EUPEDI-10 MGT-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, support existing efforts by the wildlife agenices to translocate captive bred Quino checkerspot larvae to historically occupied habitat.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-FMGT EUPEDI-12

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2017 to 2021, implement invasive plant control and other post-fire management actions as needed to ensure the recovery of Quino checkerspot at sites occupied within the last 10 years to facilitate habitat recovery, particularly forbs and host plants after wildfire events.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement needed management actions as determined through BAER or other post fire surveys. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
Post fire management actions implemented following wildfire events 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-13 MON-IMP-FMGT From 2017 to 2021, for at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, monitor recovery of Quino checkerspot occurrences and habitat affected by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to document the butterfly's distribution and abundance over time and to characterize habitat recovery and threats following a wildfire. Postfire monitoring should encompass occupied Quino checkerspot sites and unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. The postfire monitoring should identify and prioritize management actions to assist in recovery of Quino checkerspot populations and important habitat patches.
regional and/or local POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-FMGT EUPEDI-13

Management units: 3, 4, 6, 9

From 2017 to 2021, for at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, monitor recovery of Quino checkerspot occurrences and habitat affected by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to document the butterfly's distribution and abundance over time and to characterize habitat recovery and threats following a wildfire. Postfire monitoring should encompass occupied Quino checkerspot sites and unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. The postfire monitoring should identify and prioritize management actions to assist in recovery of Quino checkerspot populations and important habitat patches.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Prepare and implement a postfire habitat monitoring protocol and sampling design to determine the status of Quino checkerspot occurrences and characterize host plant recovery following wildfire. Use the monitoring results to identify management actions to ensure postfire recovery of high quality habitat as identified in the Quino Checkerspot Management and Monitoring Plan. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, Quino checkerspot postfire survey and habitat monitoring data, annual reports with management recommendations, and a final report documenting project methods and results to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Monitoring of Quino Checkerspot and Habitats with Annual Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
EUPEDI-12 MGT-IMP-FMGT From 2017 to 2021, implement invasive plant control and other post-fire management actions as needed to ensure the recovery of Quino checkerspot at sites occupied within the last 10 years to facilitate habitat recovery, particularly forbs and host plants after wildfire events.

regional and/or local NFO 2021 VF
MON-IMP-IMG EUPMIS-1

Management units: 1, 3, 6, 7

In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. on hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed 2021 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CYLCAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus, and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
ERIPAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
FERVIR-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

regional NFO 2017, 2020 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC EYPHAR-1

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

In 2017 and 2020, conduct host plant (San Diego sedge), adult, larval and hibernaculum surveys, and habitat assessments for Harbison's dun skipper that were initiated in 2013 in the MSPA (see Table of Occurrences) to further document the butterfly's current distribution and population size, define habitat requirements, and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Search for Harvison's dun skipper adults, butterfly hiberniculum, larvae and host plants (San Diego sedge) at known occupied habitat, historically occupied habitat and in suitable potential habitat, to determine the extent of the butterfly's range, population sizes, and to better understand habitat relationships. Use a standardized protocol to collect habitat and threats covariate data at each site for developing and prioritizing management actions. In progress
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Harbison's Dun Skipper Surveys and Reports Completed in 2018 and 2021 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive animalsINVANI
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, in conjunction with adult surveys and the marking study for Harbison's dun skipper (see Table of Occurrences), capture adult butterflies and collect non-lethal genetic samples (i.e., legs) to analyze population genetic structure, dispersal and connectivity between populations, and genetic diversity. Use the analytical results to develop management recommendations to improve connectivity and to maintain or enhance genetic diversity at Harbison's dun skipper occurrences.
EYPHAR-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, conduct a marking study of adult Harbison's dun skippers during the flight season to determine connectivity within habitat patches in a watershed. Design the study to obtain information on local movement patterns, flight season phenology, demography, detection probabilities, longevity, individual behavior, nectaring sources, and relationship between maximum counts and local population size. The results of this study should be used to develop specific management recommendations to be incorporated in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-4 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Harbison's dun skipper, the host plant (San Diego sedge), and oak woodlands under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential fire and climate refugia. The results of this modeling will be considered in the development of monitoring and management plans.
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
regional PRE 2017 SL
MON-DEV-MODL EYPHAR-4

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Harbison's dun skipper, the host plant (San Diego sedge), and oak woodlands under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential fire and climate refugia. The results of this modeling will be considered in the development of monitoring and management plans.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Submit project metadata, modeling datasets, results and report to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Harbison's Dun Skipper Current and Future Climate Habitat Models and Report Completed in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive animalsINVANI
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
EYPHAR-8 MGT-IMP-IGNPL Beginning in 2019, implement high priority MSP 2018 Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan measures developed for Harbison's Dun Skipper to reduce the probability of ignition at most at-risk occurrences.
regional PRE 2017 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL EYPHAR-5

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Work with the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers and other stakeholders to develop prioritized management actions. In progress
PRP-2 Submit project metadata and Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plant to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan Completed in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive animalsINVANI
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-1 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017 and 2020, conduct host plant (San Diego sedge), adult, larval and hibernaculum surveys, and habitat assessments for Harbison's dun skipper that were initiated in 2013 in the MSPA (see Table of Occurrences) to further document the butterfly's current distribution and population size, define habitat requirements, and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites.
EYPHAR-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, in conjunction with adult surveys and the marking study for Harbison's dun skipper (see Table of Occurrences), capture adult butterflies and collect non-lethal genetic samples (i.e., legs) to analyze population genetic structure, dispersal and connectivity between populations, and genetic diversity. Use the analytical results to develop management recommendations to improve connectivity and to maintain or enhance genetic diversity at Harbison's dun skipper occurrences.
EYPHAR-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, conduct a marking study of adult Harbison's dun skippers during the flight season to determine connectivity within habitat patches in a watershed. Design the study to obtain information on local movement patterns, flight season phenology, demography, detection probabilities, longevity, individual behavior, nectaring sources, and relationship between maximum counts and local population size. The results of this study should be used to develop specific management recommendations to be incorporated in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-4 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Harbison's dun skipper, the host plant (San Diego sedge), and oak woodlands under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential fire and climate refugia. The results of this modeling will be considered in the development of monitoring and management plans.
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
EYPHAR-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-8 MGT-IMP-IGNPL Beginning in 2019, implement high priority MSP 2018 Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan measures developed for Harbison's Dun Skipper to reduce the probability of ignition at most at-risk occurrences.
EYPHAR-9 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, monitor recovery of Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and habitat affected by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to document the butterfly's distribution and abundance over time and to characterize habitat recovery and threats following a wildfire. Postfire monitoring should encompass occupied dun skipper sites and unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. The postfire monitoring should identify and prioritize management actions to assist in recovery of Harbison's dun skipper populations and important habitat patches.
EYPHAR-10 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and recover Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and habitat impacted by wildfire.
regional PRE 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL EYPHAR-6

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

Beginning in 2018, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented from the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive animalsINVANI
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
EYPHAR-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
regional PRE 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL EYPHAR-7

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive animalsINVANI
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
EYPHAR-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, implement highest priority management actions identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
regional PRE 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IGNPL EYPHAR-8

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

Beginning in 2019, implement high priority MSP 2018 Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan measures developed for Harbison's Dun Skipper to reduce the probability of ignition at most at-risk occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2023, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Harbison's Dun Skipper from the MSP 2018 Wildfire Ignition Reduction Plan 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-4 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Harbison's dun skipper, the host plant (San Diego sedge), and oak woodlands under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential fire and climate refugia. The results of this modeling will be considered in the development of monitoring and management plans.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-FMGT EYPHAR-9

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, monitor recovery of Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and habitat affected by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to document the butterfly's distribution and abundance over time and to characterize habitat recovery and threats following a wildfire. Postfire monitoring should encompass occupied dun skipper sites and unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. The postfire monitoring should identify and prioritize management actions to assist in recovery of Harbison's dun skipper populations and important habitat patches.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Prepare and implement a postfire habitat monitoring protocol and sampling design to determine the status of Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and characterize oak woodland and host plant (San Diego sedge) recovery following wildfire. Use the monitoring results to identify management actions to ensure postfire recovery of high quality habitat as identified in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, Harbison's dun skipper postfire survey and habitat monitoring data, annual reports with management recommendations, and a final report documenting project methods and results to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Monitoring of Harbison's Dun Skipper and Habitats with Annual Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-1 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017 and 2020, conduct host plant (San Diego sedge), adult, larval and hibernaculum surveys, and habitat assessments for Harbison's dun skipper that were initiated in 2013 in the MSPA (see Table of Occurrences) to further document the butterfly's current distribution and population size, define habitat requirements, and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites.
EYPHAR-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, in conjunction with adult surveys and the marking study for Harbison's dun skipper (see Table of Occurrences), capture adult butterflies and collect non-lethal genetic samples (i.e., legs) to analyze population genetic structure, dispersal and connectivity between populations, and genetic diversity. Use the analytical results to develop management recommendations to improve connectivity and to maintain or enhance genetic diversity at Harbison's dun skipper occurrences.
EYPHAR-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, conduct a marking study of adult Harbison's dun skippers during the flight season to determine connectivity within habitat patches in a watershed. Design the study to obtain information on local movement patterns, flight season phenology, demography, detection probabilities, longevity, individual behavior, nectaring sources, and relationship between maximum counts and local population size. The results of this study should be used to develop specific management recommendations to be incorporated in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-FMGT EYPHAR-10

Management units: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11

For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and recover Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and habitat impacted by wildfire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Implement management actions to restore oak woodland and host plant habitat destroyed by wildfire. These management actions may include planting oaks, host plants, and native nectaring plants. Control invasive plants to to =20% absolute cover to reduce postfire invasion of nonnative plants and to allow postfire recovery of native plants by reducing competition for water and light. Manage erosion and human use impacts while habitat is recoverying. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management actions to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
At Least 3 Years of Postfire Management in Harbison's Dun Skipper Habitats 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
EYPHAR-2 MON-RES-GEN In 2017, in conjunction with adult surveys and the marking study for Harbison's dun skipper (see Table of Occurrences), capture adult butterflies and collect non-lethal genetic samples (i.e., legs) to analyze population genetic structure, dispersal and connectivity between populations, and genetic diversity. Use the analytical results to develop management recommendations to improve connectivity and to maintain or enhance genetic diversity at Harbison's dun skipper occurrences.
EYPHAR-3 MON-RES-SPEC In 2017, conduct a marking study of adult Harbison's dun skippers during the flight season to determine connectivity within habitat patches in a watershed. Design the study to obtain information on local movement patterns, flight season phenology, demography, detection probabilities, longevity, individual behavior, nectaring sources, and relationship between maximum counts and local population size. The results of this study should be used to develop specific management recommendations to be incorporated in the Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan.
EYPHAR-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, prepare a 5 year Harbison's Dun Skipper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments, genetic and marking studies, and climate and fire modeling to characterize habitat quality at occupied occurrences and unoccupied suitable habitat important for enhancing connectivity, expanding populations or that could serve as fire and climate refugia. The plan should include an overall management strategy, identification and prioritization of sites where management is needed, and specific management recommendations for each site. It should also include actions to reduce fire risk at prioritized occurrences and specifications for monitoring the effectiveness of implementing high priority management actions.
EYPHAR-9 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, monitor recovery of Harbison's dun skipper occurrences and habitat affected by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to document the butterfly's distribution and abundance over time and to characterize habitat recovery and threats following a wildfire. Postfire monitoring should encompass occupied dun skipper sites and unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. The postfire monitoring should identify and prioritize management actions to assist in recovery of Harbison's dun skipper populations and important habitat patches.

regional and/or local NFO 2021 VF
MON-IMP-IMG FERVIR-1

Management units: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. On hold
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed 2021 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
CYLCAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus, and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
ERIPAL-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.
EUPMIS-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2021, inspect occurrences of coastal sage scrub MSP VF plant species (cliff spurge, Palmer's goldenbush, San Diego barrel cactus and snake cholla) on Conserved Lands using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threat covariate data to determine management needs.

regional and/or local NFO 2017, 2020 SL
MON-IMP-IMG FREMEX-1

Management units: 3

In 2017, inspect Mexican flannelbush occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to estimate abundance and collect covariate data on tamarisk and other types of threats, determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 3 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. in progress
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Surveys Completed 2017 and 2020 with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
FREMEX-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, continue routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring that began in 2014 at Mexican flannelbush occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IMG FREMEX-2

Management units: 3

Beginning in 2017, continue routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring that began in 2014 at Mexican flannelbush occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) . Depending on the type and level of threat, management should only be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through fencing and enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species =20% absolute cover. available for implementation San Diego National Wildlife Refuge: Mother Miguel Mountain
IMP-2 Submit project metadata and management data to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation San Diego National Wildlife Refuge: Mother Miguel Mountain
Criteria Deadline year
Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Altered hydrologyALTHYD
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
FREMEX-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2017, inspect Mexican flannelbush occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional IMG monitoring protocol to estimate abundance and collect covariate data on tamarisk and other types of threats, determine management needs. After 2017, repeat monitoring every 3 years, unless an occurrence is small (<100 individuals) or faces a high degree of threat, in which case monitor annually.

Regional NFO 2017 SL
MGT-PRP-SBPL HAZORC-3

Management units: 6, 7

In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan. Available for implementation
PRP-2 Design the seed collection plan to include recommendations to collect seeds over multiple years and several times within a season, accumulate seeds across populations, and to sample among habitats and ecological niches. Include guidelines for collecting and storing seeds along maternal lines and to provide propagules to be used in management experiments, enhancement of existing occurrences, and establishment of new occurrences. Available for implementation
PRP-3 The seed collection plan should have guidelines for collecting seeds from occurrences of sufficient size to accommodate harvest. Include provisions for collecting seed from unconserved populations planned for development. Available for implementation
PRP-4 Include protocols and guidelines for collecting voucher specimens and submitting to the San Diego Natural History Museum (McEachern et al. 2007). Available for implementation
PRP-5 Include guidelines for testing seeds for viability and to obtain information on dormancy and germination rates. Available for implementation
PRP-6 Submit project metadata and the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2018, Completed Orcutt's Hazardia Section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
HAZORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through 2016, 2018 and 2020 IMG monitoring of Orcutt's hazardia occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
HAZORC-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
HAZORC-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or enhance occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
HAZORC-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
HAZORC-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-SBPL HAZORC-4

Management units: 6, 7

In 2018, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Bulk seed at a qualified facility for enhancement, expansion, establishment or transplantation projects using seed from genetically appropriate donor accessions in the propagation seed bank collection. waiting for precedent action
IMP-2 Maintain records for collected seed to document donor and receptor sites, collection dates and amounts. Submit seed collection, storage and bulking data to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =1 Highest Priority Action Implemented for Orcutt's hazardia from the MSP Seed Banking and Bulking Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
HAZORC-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
HAZORC-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional NFO 2017 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL HAZORC-5

Management units: 6, 7

In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or enhance occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Consult the San Diego County Rare Plant Working Group made up of plant ecologists, geneticists, rare plant experts, land managers, restoration practitioners, seed banking and bulking practitioners, wildlife agencies, and other stakeholders to provide input and recommendations for the Orcutt's brodiaea section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan. available for implementation
PRP-2 Develop a conceptual model that identifies management actions to effectively reduce threats to Orcutt's hazardia occurrences. available for implementation
PRP-3 Prioritize occurrences for management based upon an assessment of occurrence status, the potential for management to significantly reduce identified threats, and the availability of adjacent suitable habitat for occurrence expansion. available for implementation
PRP-4 Develop an implementation plan for Orcutt's hazardia that prioritizes management actions for the next 5 years and details tasks, lead entities, responsibilities, and timelines, budgets. available for implementation
PRP-5 Submit project metadata and MSP Rare Plant Management Plan to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2018, Completed Orcutt's Hazardia Section in MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
HAZORC-1 MON-IMP-IMG In 2018, inspect Orcutt's hazardia occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) using the regional rare plant IMG monitoring protocol to record abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs. After 2018, repeat monitoring every 2 years.
HAZORC-2 MGT-IMP-IMG Beginning in 2017, conduct routine management actions identified through 2016, 2018 and 2020 IMG monitoring of Orcutt's hazardia occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table). Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
HAZORC-3 MGT-PRP-SBPL In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to preserve genetic diversity and rescue occurrences in case of catastrophic disturbance. The plan should incorporate best science and management practices (Wall 2009, KEW 2016) and recommendations from the 2014 genetic study to provide guidance for collecting and storing seeds over the long term at a permanent, established conservation seed bank (e.g., Institute for Conservation Research Native Plant Seed Bank, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Seed Conservation Program) and for providing a source of seeds for management purposes. The plan should include recommendations for: collecting and storing seeds for conservation banking; management oriented research; rescuing occurrences after catastrophic disturbances; and seed bulking and out-planting to augment extant occurrences or to establish new occurrences with consideration of genetic implications for population sustainability.
HAZORC-4 MGT-IMP-SBPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority actions for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Seed Collection, Banking and Bulking Plan to collect and store seeds at a permanent seed bank and to provide propagules as needed for management oriented research, existing population enhancement and establishment of new occurrences.
HAZORC-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
HAZORC-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL HAZORC-6

Management units: 6, 7

In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
By 2022, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented for Orcutt's Brodiaea from the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
HAZORC-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or enhance occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
HAZORC-7 MON-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
regional and/or local NFO 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL HAZORC-7

Management units: 6, 7

In 2018, begin monitoring effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
HAZORC-5 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, begin preparing an Orcutt's hazardia section in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan that prioritizes management actions to maintain or enhance occurrences on Conserved Lands (see occurrence table) based upon an assessment of data on occurrence status, habitat and threats. Minimum criteria for enhancement are to reduce invasive annual nonnative plants and thatch to less than 20% absolute cover within the occurrence
HAZORC-6 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing highest priority management actions identified for Orcutt's hazardia in the MSP Rare Plant Management Plan.
Regional and/or Local POST 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-RES-SPEC HAZORC-8

Management units: 6, 7

Conduct a study to determine the population dynamics of Orcutt's hazardia in response to natural and altered fire frequencies that may affect successional processes and population dynamics. The study should begin when the next fire burns an Orcutt's hazardia occurrence to research post-fire recovery mechanisms (e.g., resprouter vs. obligate seeder) and circumstances in which post-fire management is necessary to facilitate robust post-fire recovery of Orcutt's hazardia.

Action Statement Action status Projects
RES-1 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. On hold
Criteria Deadline year
Orcutt's Hazardia Fire Study Completed and Report Submitted by 5 Years Post Fire 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR

Regional and/or Local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-IMG LEPCAR-1

Management units: 4, 5, 8

If extant occurrences of heart-leaved pitcher sage are discovered on Conserved Lands in 2017-2021, inspect the occurrences and repeat monitoring every 2 years. Use a regional monitoring protocol to record population abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Based upon occurrence status and threats, determine management needs including whether routine management or more intensive management is warranted. Available for implementation Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Monitoring 2014-2026
IMP-2 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets and management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. Available for implementation Rare Plant Inspect and Manage Monitoring 2014-2026
Criteria Deadline year
If Extant Occurrences Found on Conserved Lands, Surveys Completed Every 2 Years with Management Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
LEPCAR-2 MGT-IMP-IMG If heart-leaved pitcher sage occurrences are found on Conserved Lands, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring. Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.
local NFO 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-IMG LEPCAR-2

Management units: 4, 5, 8

If heart-leaved pitcher sage occurrences are found on Conserved Lands, conduct routine management actions identified through the IMG monitoring. Depending on the type and level of threat, management should be conducted as needed, not necessarily every year, and using BMPs with precautions to do no harm.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Perform routine management activities such as protecting occurrences from disturbance through enforcement and controlling invasive non-native plant species to less than 20% absolute cover. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
If Extant Occurrences Found on Conserved Lands, Routine Management Completed as Needed Based Upon Monitoring Recommendations 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Code Obj. code Statement
LEPCAR-1 MON-IMP-IMG If extant occurrences of heart-leaved pitcher sage are discovered on Conserved Lands in 2017-2021, inspect the occurrences and repeat monitoring every 2 years. Use a regional monitoring protocol to record population abundance and collect habitat and threats covariate data to determine management needs.

regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019 SL
MON-SURV-SPEC LYCHER-1

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2017-2019, continue surveys for adult Hermes copper (see occurrence table) and habitat assessments begun in 2016 to document the butterfly's current distribution and abundance and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites. Prepare site-specific management recommendations based on survey results and habitat assessments.

Action Statement Action status Projects
SURV-1 Search for adult Hermes copper butterflies and host plants (spiny redbery) at known occupied habitat, historically occupied habitat, habitat recovering from wildfire, and suitable habitat with potential to support the butterfly to determine the extent of the range, population sizes, and to better understand habitat relationships. Use a standardized protocol to collect habitat and threats covariate data at each site for developing and prioritizing management actions. in progress
SURV-2 Submit project metadata, datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. in progress
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Surveys and Reports Completed in 2017 and 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-3 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-9 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2018, develop a monitoring plan to track long term distribution, abundance, and phenology, and to assess habitats and threats at Hermes copper occurrences (see Table of Occurrences), historically occupied and unoccupied high suitability sites across Conserved Lands in the MSPA. The monitoring plan should build upon previous surveys, habitat assessments and modeling to develop specific questions, monitoring methods, a statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, and standardized protocols for determining the status and abundance of the butterfly and for assessing habitat and threats at each sampling site to determine management needs. The plan should stipulate that for each survey year, a report be prepared with site-specific management recommendations.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019 SL
MGT-IMP-TRAN LYCHER-2

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2019, continue Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 to test the effectiveness of releasing eggs and larvae to repopulate the Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences) where the original population was extirpated by fire.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Continue releasing Hermes copper eggs at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area where the butterfly was extirpated in 2017, to see if translocation success can be improved under normal rainfall conditions. Nine of 14 larvae emerged in 2015 from translocated eggs and 1 adult was observed in 2016, despite the prolonged and intense drought. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Translocation Experiments Completed in 2019 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-1 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017-2019, continue surveys for adult Hermes copper (see occurrence table) and habitat assessments begun in 2016 to document the butterfly's current distribution and abundance and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites. Prepare site-specific management recommendations based on survey results and habitat assessments.
LYCHER-3 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.
LYCHER-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue development of BMPs begun in 2013 for captive rearing Hermes Copper at the San Diego Zoo. Attempt to determine optimal conditions for rearing Hermes copper in captivity to provide a source of butterflies for translocations to re-establish populations at sites where the butterfly has been extirpated or to establish new populations in suitable habitat.
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-13 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality habitat to allow for recovery of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by wildfire.
regional POST 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-TRAN LYCHER-3

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, monitoring datasets, analyses and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Translocation Monitoring and Reports Completed Annually 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-2 MGT-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2019, continue Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 to test the effectiveness of releasing eggs and larvae to repopulate the Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences) where the original population was extirpated by fire.
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-13 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality habitat to allow for recovery of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by wildfire.
regional NFO 2017 SL
MGT-DEV-BMP LYCHER-4

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2017, continue development of BMPs begun in 2013 for captive rearing Hermes Copper at the San Diego Zoo. Attempt to determine optimal conditions for rearing Hermes copper in captivity to provide a source of butterflies for translocations to re-establish populations at sites where the butterfly has been extirpated or to establish new populations in suitable habitat.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Submit project metadata, datasets, and report with management recommendations to the MSP Web Portal. on hold
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Captive Rearing Experiments and Report Completed by 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Human uses of the PreservesHUMUSE
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-2 MGT-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2019, continue Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 to test the effectiveness of releasing eggs and larvae to repopulate the Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences) where the original population was extirpated by fire.
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-13 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality habitat to allow for recovery of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by wildfire.
regional PRE 2017 SL
MON-DEV-MODL LYCHER-5

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Hermes copper and the host plant (spiny redberry), and the primary nectaring plant (California buckwheat) under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans for this butterfly.

Action Statement Action status Projects
DEV-1 Submit project metadata, modeling datasets, results and report to the MSP Web Portal. In progress
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Current and Future Climate Habitat Models and Report Completed in 2017 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-9 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2018, develop a monitoring plan to track long term distribution, abundance, and phenology, and to assess habitats and threats at Hermes copper occurrences (see Table of Occurrences), historically occupied and unoccupied high suitability sites across Conserved Lands in the MSPA. The monitoring plan should build upon previous surveys, habitat assessments and modeling to develop specific questions, monitoring methods, a statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, and standardized protocols for determining the status and abundance of the butterfly and for assessing habitat and threats at each sampling site to determine management needs. The plan should stipulate that for each survey year, a report be prepared with site-specific management recommendations.
regional PRE 2017 SL
MGT-PRP-MGTPL LYCHER-6

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Work with the Butterfly Working Group consisting of species experts, scientists, wildlife agencies, land managers and other stakeholders to develop prioritized management actions. completed
PRP-2 Include fire risk and climate change modeling results to provide management recommendations in relation to fire and climate refugia and to reduce fire risk at occurrences. completed
PRP-3 Submit project metadata and Herme's Copper Management Plant to the MSP Web Portal. completed
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Management Plan Completed in 2017 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-1 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017-2019, continue surveys for adult Hermes copper (see occurrence table) and habitat assessments begun in 2016 to document the butterfly's current distribution and abundance and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites. Prepare site-specific management recommendations based on survey results and habitat assessments.
LYCHER-3 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.
LYCHER-4 MGT-DEV-BMP In 2017, continue development of BMPs begun in 2013 for captive rearing Hermes Copper at the San Diego Zoo. Attempt to determine optimal conditions for rearing Hermes copper in captivity to provide a source of butterflies for translocations to re-establish populations at sites where the butterfly has been extirpated or to establish new populations in suitable habitat.
LYCHER-5 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Hermes copper and the host plant (spiny redberry), and the primary nectaring plant (California buckwheat) under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans for this butterfly.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-13 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality habitat to allow for recovery of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by wildfire.
regional PRE 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MGT-IMP-MGTPL LYCHER-7

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit project metadata, management datasets, and report to the MSP Web Portal. available for implementation
Criteria Deadline year
By 2021, =1 High Priority Management Action Implemented from the Hermes Copper Management Plan 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-2 MGT-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2019, continue Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 to test the effectiveness of releasing eggs and larvae to repopulate the Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences) where the original population was extirpated by fire.
LYCHER-3 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-13 MGT-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a fire, implement management actions identified by postfire monitoring as necessary to protect and rehabilitate high quality habitat to allow for recovery of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by wildfire.
regional PRE 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MGTPL LYCHER-8

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Hermes Copper Management Plan.

Action Statement Action status Projects
IMP-1 Submit metadata, management effectiveness datasets, analyses, and report to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Effectiveness of High Priority Management Actions Determined and Report Completed 2021
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-6 MGT-PRP-MGTPL In 2017, complete a 5 year Hermes Copper Management Plan that includes the results from butterfly surveys and habitat assessments and genetic, marking and translocation studies to develop a management strategy and to identify and prioritize site specific management actions. The plan should employ the modeling results to identify potential fire and climate refugia that may be suitable sites for future translocations and provide specific recommendations for reducing fire risk at occurrences at highest risk.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-7 MGT-IMP-MGTPL In 2018, begin implementing high priority management actions from the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-9 MON-PRP-MONPL In 2018, develop a monitoring plan to track long term distribution, abundance, and phenology, and to assess habitats and threats at Hermes copper occurrences (see Table of Occurrences), historically occupied and unoccupied high suitability sites across Conserved Lands in the MSPA. The monitoring plan should build upon previous surveys, habitat assessments and modeling to develop specific questions, monitoring methods, a statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, and standardized protocols for determining the status and abundance of the butterfly and for assessing habitat and threats at each sampling site to determine management needs. The plan should stipulate that for each survey year, a report be prepared with site-specific management recommendations.
LYCHER-10 MON-IMP-MONPL In 2020, begin implementing long term Hermes copper monitoring as specified in the Hermes Copper Monitoring Plan. Prepare a report detailing butterfly and habitat assessment results and with site specific management recommendations.
LYCHER-12 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing Hermes copper habitat recovery following a fire. Postfire monitoring should include collecting habitat recovery data at unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover Hermes copper populations and important habitat patches.
regional NFO 2018 SL
MON-PRP-MONPL LYCHER-9

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2018, develop a monitoring plan to track long term distribution, abundance, and phenology, and to assess habitats and threats at Hermes copper occurrences (see Table of Occurrences), historically occupied and unoccupied high suitability sites across Conserved Lands in the MSPA. The monitoring plan should build upon previous surveys, habitat assessments and modeling to develop specific questions, monitoring methods, a statistically valid sampling design, sampling locations, and standardized protocols for determining the status and abundance of the butterfly and for assessing habitat and threats at each sampling site to determine management needs. The plan should stipulate that for each survey year, a report be prepared with site-specific management recommendations.

Action Statement Action status Projects
PRP-1 Incorporate previously tested survey methods into development of a Hermes copper monitoring protocol and habitat assessment.The sampling frame should include the current and historic range of the butterfly on Conserved Lands and any unoccupied suitable habitat modeled as climate or fire refugia. Include a subset of sites in north and south San Diego County classified as sentinel sites and monitored every survey year to characterize the conditions and phenology for the butterfly in that year. The remainder of sites should be included in a rotating panel to be surveyed in alternative years. waiting for precedent action
PRP-2 Submit project metadata and Hermes Copper Monitoring Plan to the MSP Web Portal. waiting for precedent action
Criteria Deadline year
Hermes Copper Monitoring Plan Completed in 2018 2021
Threat Name Threat Code
Altered fire regimeALTFIR
Climate changeCLICHN
Invasive plantsINVPLA
Urban developmentURBDEV
Code Obj. code Statement
LYCHER-1 MON-SURV-SPEC In 2017-2019, continue surveys for adult Hermes copper (see occurrence table) and habitat assessments begun in 2016 to document the butterfly's current distribution and abundance and to assess habitat and threats at survey sites. Prepare site-specific management recommendations based on survey results and habitat assessments.
LYCHER-3 MON-IMP-TRAN From 2017 to 2021, continue monitoring the effectiveness of Hermes Copper translocation experiments begun in 2014 at Hollenbeck Canyon Wildlife Area (see Table of Occurrences). Extend the monitoring for 2 years after the last egg is translocated to determine whether a population has been established.
LYCHER-5 MON-DEV-MODL In 2017, develop habitat suitability models for Hermes copper and the host plant (spiny redberry), and the primary nectaring plant (California buckwheat) under current and future climate change scenarios, and conduct fire risk modeling with different management scenarios to identify potential climate and fire refugia. The results of this modeling will be used to inform development of monitoring and management plans for this butterfly.
LYCHER-8 MON-IMP-MGTPL Beginning in 2018, monitor effectiveness of implementation of highest priority management actions identified in the Hermes Copper Management Plan.
LYCHER-10 MON-IMP-MONPL In 2020, begin implementing long term Hermes copper monitoring as specified in the Hermes Copper Monitoring Plan. Prepare a report detailing butterfly and habitat assessment results and with site specific management recommendations.
LYCHER-12 MON-IMP-FMGT For at least the first 3 years following a wildfire, use a standardized survey protocol to determine the status of Hermes copper occurrences impacted by fire. Use a standardized postfire protocol to collect vegetation and other covariates important in characterizing Hermes copper habitat recovery following a fire. Postfire monitoring should include collecting habitat recovery data at unoccupied sites that are important for enhancing connectivity or for future population expansion. Identify and prioritize management actions to recover Hermes copper populations and important habitat patches.
regional NFO 2020, 2021 SL
MON-IMP-MONPL LYCHER-10

Management units: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11

In 2020, begin implementing long term Hermes copper monitoring as specified in the Hermes Copper Monitoring Plan. Prepare a report detailing butterfly and